[image-111]A Look at Arthur's Remnants in Infrared
These two images of the remnants of former Hurricane Arthur were taken from the AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on July 7. The darker blue in the false-colored image (left) indicates strongest storms. Most of the heavy rainfall has dissipated. The other image (right) is in near-infrared light and looks like a visible picture. Arthur is between Canada and southwestern Greenland. Image Credit: NASA JPL/Ed Olsen
[image-284]July 06, 2014 - Arthur's Remnants Headed toward Greenland
The NOAA GOES-East satellite captured an image of Post-Tropical Cyclone Arthur on July 6 that showed the storm was exiting northeastern Canada. The Canadian Hurricane Centre (CHC) of Environment Canada expects the post-tropical remnants to move northeast toward Greenland over the next several days.
On Sunday, July 6 at 9:01 a.m. ADT (8:01 a.m. EDT) the CHC noted that Post-Tropical Cyclone Arthur's remnants were moving northeastward. The CHC noted that winds will wane over New Brunswick and the Quebec maritime today.
On July 6, CHC identified Arthur's position at 9 a.m. ADT (8 a.m. EDT) near 47.8 north latitude and 60.1 west longitude. That's about 75 kilometers west-northwest of Port-aux-Basques, Newfoundland, Canada. Maximum sustained winds were still near 75 kph (46.6 mph), and Arthur's remnants are moving to the north-northeast near 40 kph (25 mph). Minimum central pressure was 984 millibars.
NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured an infrared image of Arthur's remnant circulation near Port-aux-Basques, Newfoundland at 0845 UTC (4:45 a.m. EDT). The image showed that Arthur's remnant circulation was elongated and to the east were clouds associated with the cold front that had overtaken Arthur on July 5. The image was created by the NASA/NOAA GOES Project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.
Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
[image-95][image-270]July 05, 2014 - Satellites See Arthur Weaken, Become Post-Tropical Near Canada
A cold front has overtaken the circulation of Arthur, helping change the storm from tropical to post-tropical and weaken it. Several satellites kept track of Arthur, including NASA's Terra satellite and NOAA's GOES-East satellite. NASA's Terra satellite saw Arthur hugging the Mid-Atlantic coastline as a hurricane on July 4. NOAA's GOES-East satellite data captured images of Arthur that were made into an animation that tracked its movement up to eastern Canada.
On July 4 at 15:20 UTC (11:20 a.m. EDT), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured a visible image of Hurricane Arthur. At the time, Arthur's center was off the coast of Delaware and Maryland and the eye had become cloud-filled.
At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. on July 5, the NASA/NOAA GOES Project created an animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental or GOES-East satellite that showed the movement of Arthur from July 4 to July 5 as it sped from the U.S. Mid-Atlantic up to eastern Canada.
At 8 a.m. EDT on July 5, the National Hurricane Center or NHC noted that Tropical Storm Arthur continued to move northeast towards Nova Scotia, Canada. During July 5, high winds can still be expected across portions of eastern Maine.
A tropical storm warning is in effect for Nova Scotia Including Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick from the U.S./Canada Border to Grand-Anse.
Today and tomorrow remain bad "beach days" along the eastern Canadian coast and the U.S. Eastern Seaboard because of dangerous rip currents and high surf. Extreme caution should be used on area beaches. High Surf Advisories are posted from Maine to Delaware today, with Beach Advisories south to the Carolinas. In the Surf Advisory area, high ocean swells are expected, as well as dangerous rip currents. In the Beach Advisory are dangerous rip currents are expected.
At 8 a.m. EDT on July 5, the National Hurricane Center noted that Arthur has become a post-tropical storm. That means, that the core of Arthur's center was no longer a warm, tropical core, but a cold-core low pressure center. NHC Forecaster Lixion Avila noted at 5 a.m. on July 5 in the Discussion on Arthur, "the low-level center is now displaced from the convection (rising air that form the thunderstorms that make up Arthur), and the rain shield has expanded significantly toward the northwest."
Arthur's maximum sustained winds dropped to near 65 mph (100 kph), making it a post-tropical storm. Arthur was just 50 miles (80 km) north-northwest of Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada. Arthur's center was near 44.5 north and 66.5 west. Post-Tropical Storm Arthur was moving to the north-northeast at 23 mph (37 kph) and had a minimum central pressure of 983 millibars. Just twelve hours prior when Arthur was a hurricane, it had a minimum central pressure of 936 millibars.
Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
[image-208][image-224][image-240]July 04, 2014 - NASA Sees Hurricane Arthur's July Fourth Fireworks on U.S. East Coast
Hurricane Arthur made landfall in North Carolina on July 3, and today, July 4, it is bringing its own fireworks along the Mid-Atlantic and New England states. Those fireworks were in the form of "hot towers," powerful, high thunderstorms with heavy rainfall that indicate strengthening. NASA's TRMM satellite spotted those fireworks before Arthur made landfall.
Hurricane Arthur made landfall on July 3 at (11:15 p.m. EDT) over the Shackleford Banks between Cape Lookout and Beaufort, North Carolina.
The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission or TRMM satellite, managed by both NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency flew directly over Arthur on July 3, 2014 at 19:22 UTC (3:22 p.m. EDT) as the hurricane was becoming increasingly more powerful. At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland an analysis of rainfall from TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) instruments was overlaid on a combination visible/Infrared image taken from NOAA's GOES-East satellite. The combined image showed that intense bands of thunderstorms north of Arthur's well-defined eye were generating rainfall at a rate of over 98.4mm (3.9 inches) per hour.
One of the TRMM Precipitation Radar's most useful functions has been it's ability to provide 3-D vertical profiles of precipitation from the surface up to a height of about 20 km (12 miles). TRMM PR data were used to create a 3-D view of hurricane Arthur and showed tall thunderstorm towers near the center of the hurricane. These "hot towers" found reaching heights of over 15.0 km (about 9.3 miles) are often a sign that a hurricane is becoming more powerful. Even taller thunderstorm tops were found reaching heights of 16km (about 9.9 miles) in the states of North and South Carolina.
A "hot tower" is a tall cumulonimbus cloud that reaches at least to the top of the troposphere, the lowest layer of the atmosphere. It extends approximately nine miles (14.5 km) high in the tropics. These towers are called "hot" because they rise to such altitude due to the large amount of latent heat. Water vapor releases this latent heat as it condenses into liquid. NASA research shows that a tropical cyclone with a hot tower in its eyewall was twice as likely to intensify within six or more hours, than a cyclone that lacked a hot tower.
On July 4 at 7:00 a.m. EDT, Arthur was a category 2 hurricane with maximum sustained winds near 100 mph. A category 2 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale has sustained winds between 96-110 mph. Satellite imagery showed that Arthur still maintained an eye, and that eye was centered near 36.5 north latitude and 74.7 west longitude. Arthur was moving to the northeast at a speedy 23 mph (37 kph) and is expected to speed up in the next couple of days. Arthur is expected to become a post-tropical cyclone tonight or Saturday, according to the National Hurricane Center (NHC).
The NHC forecast called for Arthur's center to move well offshore of the Mid-Atlantic coast of the U.S. today, pass southeast of New England tonight, and be near or over western Nova Scotia early on Saturday, July 5.
As a result of the forecast track, many warnings and watches are in effect from the Mid-Atlantic to Canada. A hurricane warning is in effect for Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina to the North Carolina/Virginia border, and the eastern Albemarle Sound. A tropical storm warning is in effect for the North Carolina/Virginia Border to Cape Charles Light, Virginia including the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, the western Albemarle Sound, Nantucket and Cape Cod, Massachusetts from Provincetown to Woods Hole.
Arthur is expected to pick up speed and zip up to the Canadian Maritimes late today, July 4, so tropical storm watches extend that far north. A tropical storm watch is in effect for New Brunswick from U.S./Canada border to Grand-Anse. It includes all of Nova Scotia Including Cape Breton Island, and all of Prince Edward Island.
For storm surge, wind and rainfall effects, visit the NHC website at; www.nhc.noaa.gov.
Text credit: Rob Gutro/Hal Pierce
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
[image-79]July 03, 2014 - International Space Station Captures Image of Arthur
Looking out the window of the International Space Station, astronauts spotted a sprawling mass of clouds. The clouds were just beginning to take shape as the first tropical storm of the 2014 season built over the Atlantic. Tropical Storm Arthur formed off southern Florida on July 1, 2014. By morning of July 2, when an astronaut took this photo with a wide-angle lens, the storm was moving north along the Florida coast. Surrounded by bright green waters, the Bahamas Islands are south of the storm in the lower right corner of the photo. The U.S. coastline stretches along the left side of the photo.
Arthur is forecast to become a hurricane over the next two days. It may graze or strike the Outer Banks of North Carolina as it moves north. The National Hurricane Center has issued a hurricane watch or tropical storm warning for much of coastal North Carolina and a tropical storm watch for part of South Carolina. Please visit the National Hurricane Center for the latest warnings.
Reference: National Hurricane Center (2014, July 2) Tropical Storm Arthur. Accessed July 2, 2014.
Astronaut photograph ISS040-E-030560 was acquired on July 2, 2014, with a Nikon D3S digital camera using a wide-angle (19 mm) lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by the Expedition 40 crew The image in this article has been enhanced to improve contrast. The International Space Station Program supports the laboratory as part of the ISS National Lab to help astronauts take pictures of Earth that will be of the greatest value to scientists and the public, and to make those images freely available on the Internet. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA/JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.
Text credit: Holli Riebeek
NASA's Earth Observatory
[image-63][image-176]July 03, 2014 - Morning - NASA Sees Hurricane Arthur's Cloud-Covered Eye
When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Storm Arthur on July 2 at 2:50 p.m. EDT on July 2, it saw a cloud-covered eye as the storm was on the way to becoming a hurricane.
This visible image of Tropical Storm Arthur was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. Arthur's center was over the Atlantic Ocean and east of Florida's northeast coast. By 5 a.m. EDT on July 3, Arthur's eye had formed but remained cloud covered even as the storm hit hurricane-strength with maximum sustained winds near 75 mph.
The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured infrared data on Tropical Storm Arthur's cloud tops on July 3 at 2:47 p.m. EDT. The data was made into a false-colored infrared image at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. The image showed powerful thunderstorms around Arthur's center with temperatures near -63F/-53C. Cloud tops that cold tower to the near the top of the troposphere and have the ability to produce heavy rainfall.
By 8 a.m. EDT on July 3, watches and warnings peppered the U.S. Southeast. The National Hurricane Center or NHC issued the following: a hurricane warning is in effect for Surf City, North Carolina to the North Carolina/Virginia Border, Pamlico Sound and the Eastern Albemarle Sound. A hurricane watch is in effect for the Little River Inlet to south of Surf City. In addition, a tropical storm warning is in effect for South Santee River, South Carolina to south of Surf City; the North Carolina/Virginia border to Cape Charles Light; and Virginia, including the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay; and the Western Albemarle Sound.
On July 3 at 8 a.m. EDT (1200 UTC) the center of Hurricane Arthur was near latitude 31.8 north and longitude 78.7 west. That puts Arthur's center about 300 miles (480 km) southwest of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, and just 150 miles (240 km) south-southwest of Cape Fear, North Carolina. Maximum sustained winds have increased to near 80 mph (130 kph) and some additional strengthening is forecast during the next 24 hours.
The National Hurricane Center noted that Arthur is moving toward the north-northeast near 9 mph (15 kph and a turn to the northeast is expected. Arthur's center is expected to approach the coast in the hurricane warning area tonight, July 3.
Forecaster Brennan noted in the July 3 discussion on Arthur that after moving very close to the North Carolina Outer Banks late on July 3 and early July 4, the storm should then accelerate northeastward offshore of the mid-Atlantic states and the northeastern U.S. on July 4. By July 5, the NHC expects Arthur to move into the Canadian Maritimes.
Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
July 02, 2014 - NASA's TRMM Satellite Spots Heavy Rainfall Around Tropical Storm Arthur's Center
[image-36][image-144][image-110][image-126]Tropical Storm Arthur appears to be ramping up, and NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission or TRMM satellite spotted heavy rainfall occurring around the storm's center on July 1 when it was centered over the Bahamas.
Those heavy rains are expected to affect the southern U.S. coastline over the next several days as the National Hurricane Center expects Arthur to strengthen into a hurricane. On July 2, the NHC issued a Hurricane Watch for Bogue Inlet to Oregon Inlet, North Carolina and Pamlico Sound. In addition, a Tropical Storm Watch is in effect for the east coast of Florida from Sebastian Inlet to Flagler Beach, South Santee River South Carolina to south of Bogue Inlet, North Carolina, north of Oregon Inlet, North Carolina to the North Carolina/Virginia Border, and the Eastern Albemarle Sound.
The TRMM satellite had a good daylight look at tropical storm Arthur on July 1, 2014 at 1620 UTC (12:20 p.m. EDT) less than two hours after it was upgraded from a tropical depression. At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland rainfall from TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) data were overlaid on a GOES-East satellite infrared/visible image taken at 1626 UTC (12:26 p.m. EDT). The TMI instrument showed very heavy rainfall around Arthur's center. The heaviest rainfall was occurring at a rate of about 2 inches per hour. Powerful thunderstorms in that area reached heights above 15.5 km (about 9.6 miles).
Shortly after TRMM flew over Arthur and gathered rainfall and cloud height data, NASA's Terra satellite captured a visible image of the storm over the Bahamas. The image, created by the NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team, used visible data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument that flies aboard Terra. The image showed a concentration of powerful storms around the center and northwestern quadrant of the storm. Arthur's western quadrant continued to affect the east coast of Florida.
On July 2 at 8 a.m. EDT (12:00 UTC) the center of Tropical Storm Arthur was near latitude 28.8 north and longitude 79.0 west. That's about 100 miles (160 km east-northeast of Cape Canaveral, Florida and NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Arthur's center is also 275 miles (445 km) south of Charleston, South Carolina.
The National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted that Arthur is moving toward the north near 6 mph (9 kph) and this motion is expected to continue today. A turn toward the north-northeast is expected tonight, July 2, followed by a turn toward the northeast. Maximum sustained winds remain near 60 mph (95 kph). Some strengthening is forecast during the next two days and Arthur is expected to become a hurricane by Thursday, July 3.
NHC noted that Arthur is expected to move east of the east-central coast of Florida today, July 2, pass east of Northeastern Florida tonight, move parallel to the coast of South Carolina on Thursday July 3, and approach the hurricane watch area Thursday night. For expected conditions along the watch areas, please visit the National Hurricane Center website: www.nhc.noaa.gov.
Text credit: Rob Gutro / Hal Pierce
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
[image-51][image-77]July 01, 2014 - Atlantic's Developing Tropical Depression 1
On June 29, 2014, at 7:06 p.m. EDT (2306 UTC) the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, or TRMM, satellite flew over a low-pressure center east of Florida. This low-pressure area developed over South Carolina and moved east into the Atlantic Ocean where the warm waters of the Gulf Stream helped fuel it.
NASA's TRMM satellite uses different instruments that allow scientists on Earth to create 3-D images of those storms so they can see where the most powerful areas are within it. A NASA rainfall analysis made on June 29 that used data from TRMM's Microwave Imager and Precipitation Radar (PR) instruments showed that rainfall was only light to moderate near the center of the low.
At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, the TRMM science office also created a simulated 3-D view of rainfall using TRMM PR data that showed most of the convective (rising air that forms clouds and thunderstorms) showers and thunderstorms near the center of the low were only reaching altitudes of about 6.2 miles (about 10 km). A few of the outer rain bands contained powerful thunderstorm "hot towers," or towering clouds that reached heights of about 8 miles (13 km) indicating strong thunderstorms with heavy rainfall potential.
On June 30 at 3 p.m. EDT the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured an impressive visible image of Tropical Depression 1 off the coast of central Florida. The image showed some powerful, high thunderstorms over the Bahamas. In visible imagery, the strongest thunderstorms are identified as the highest ones that cast shadows on the clouds below them.
On July 1 that area of low pressure developed into Tropical Depression 1. The National Hurricane Center issued a Tropical Storm Watch for the east coast of Florida from Fort Pierce to Flagler Beach.
The National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted at 8 a.m. EDT (1200 UTC) that the center of Tropical Depression 1 was located near 27.5 degrees north latitude and 79.2 degrees west longitude. That's just about 95 miles (155 km) southeast of Cape Canaveral, Florida. The depression has remained nearly stationary during the past few hours. A northwestward motion is expected to begin later today, followed by a turn toward the north on Wednesday. Maximum sustained winds are near 35 mph (55 kph). The estimated minimum central pressure is 1007 millibars.
NHC noted that the depression may become a tropical storm later in the day on July 1. The system is forecast to pass east of northeastern Florida on Wednesday, July 2. For updates, visit the National Hurricane Center webpage: http://www.nhc.noaa.gov.
Rob Gutro and Hal Pierce
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland