Visualization depicting Typhoon Mayask in the Southwest Pacific region as observed by the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Satellite on March 30th, 2015. GPM/GMI precipitation rates are displayed as the camera moves in on the storm. A slicing place move across the volume to display precipitation rates throughout the structure of the storm. Shades of green to red represent liquid precipitation extending down to the ground.
Apr. 03, 2015 - Tropical Cyclone Maysak Tracks Over Northern Philippines and Dissipates
[image-318]Tropical Cyclone Maysak weakened to a tropical storm before making landfall in Luzon, Philippines on April 5 and dissipating a day later. NASA's Aqua satellite captured the storm making landfall.
On April 4, the once Category 5 storm on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale had weakened to a tropical storm before it made landfall in Luzon, Philippines. At 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) on April 4, Maysak's maximum sustained winds were near 60 knots (69 mph/111 kph). It was centered near 15.7 north and 124.2 east, about 197 nautical miles (226.7 miles/ 364.8 km) east-northeast of Manila.
On April 5 at 02:45 UTC, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured a visible image of Tropical Storm Maysak as it made landfall in Luzon, Philippines.
Tropical Depression Maysak tracked across the northern Philippines and emerged into the South China Sea. Maysak, called Chedeng in the Philippines, was about 365 nautical miles (420 miles/676 km) southeast of Hong Kong at 2100 UTC (5 p.m. EDT) on April 5. By that time Maysak's maximum sustained winds had dropped to 25 knots (28.7 mph/46.3 kph) after moving over the terrain of the northern Philippines
In that final warning about the system, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) noted that "animated enhanced infrared satellite imagery reveals that the bulk of the deep convection has warmed and sheared away from the low level circulation center, which has unraveled over the past 12 hours. Recent microwave images still indicate a broad area of cyclonic turning, but there is no defined system center."
By April 6, 2015, ex-tropical cyclone Maysak dissipated over the South China Sea.
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
NASA Sees Typhoon Maysak Weakening
Various NASA satellites and instruments continue to see the weakening trend in Typhoon Maysak as it moved through the Philippine Sea on April 2 and 3 toward a landfall in Luzon on April 4. Maysak is known locally in the Philippines as Typhoon Chedeng.
On April 2, the International Space Station's NASA RapidScat instrument analyzed Maysak's winds from 9:10 to 10:43 UTC (5:10 a.m. to 6:43 a.m. EDT) and data found strongest surface winds were northeast of the eye, near 40 m/s (89.4 mph/144 kph/77.7 knots).
The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM core observatory satellite passed above Typhoon Maysak on April 2, 2015 at 23:43 UTC (7:43 p.m. EDT). GPM's Microwave Imager (GMI) found heavy rain in Maysak's northwestern side but the typhoon had weakened from its peak intensity of over 130 knots (150 mph/241 kph) to about 115 knots (132 mph/213 kph) at the time of GPM passed overhead.
GPM's Radar (Ku Band) was used to create a 3-D view to show the vertical structure of the thunderstorms that make up Maysak. The three dimensional view was created looking toward the southwestern side of Maysak's eye, and showed that the eye wall was eroding on that side. Some of the highest thunderstorms around the eye were near 9.3 miles (15 km) high. Vertical wind shear has contributed to Typhoon Maysak's continued weakening.
On April 3, Public Storm Warning Signal #1 were in effect in the Philippines for the Luzon provinces of Isabela, Aurora, Quirino, Quezon including Polillo Island, Catanduanes, Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur. For updated warnings and watches, visit: http://pagasa.dost.gov.ph/index.php/tropical-cyclones/weather-bulletin.
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible image of Typhoon Maysak moving west-northwest through the Philippine Sea at 04:25 UTC (12:25 a.m. EDT). Maysak's eye was still visible on the MODIS image, although it appeared it was topped by high clouds. Bands of thunderstorms circled the eye and wrapped into the center from the north and east of the center.
By 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) Typhoon Maysak's maximum sustained winds dropped to 85 knots (97.8 mph/157.4 kph). That makes Maysak a Category 2 typhoon on the Saffir-Simpson Wind Scale. Hurricane-force winds extended to about 30 nautical miles (34.5 miles/55.5 km) outward from the center. Maysak was centered near 14.4 north latitude and 128.5 east longitude, about 471 nautical miles (542 miles/872.3 km) east of Manila, Philippines. Maysak was moving to the west at 9 knots (10.3 mph/16.6 kph).
The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) predicts that Maysak will be a tropical storm when it makes landfall on April 4 in the northern Philippines. Passage across land will weaken Maysak, and the storm is expected to dissipate over the South China Sea.
Rob Gutro / Hal Pierce
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
[image-240]Apr. 02, 2015 - Update #2 - NASA's ISS-RapidScat: Typhoon Maysak's Strongest Winds Tightly Wound
The RapidScat instrument that flies aboard the International Space Station saw Typhoon Maysak's strongest winds wrapped tightly around its center, extending outward to over 30 miles from the eye. Maysak weakened as a result of increasing wind shear.
On April 1 from 19:17 to 20:50 UTC (3:17 p.m. to 4:50 p.m. EDT) the ISS-RapidScat instrument measured the sustained winds of Maysak, now a typhoon in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. RapidScat saw the strongest sustained winds on Typhoon Maysak wrapped tightly around the center and north of center up to 30 m/s (67.1 mph/108 kph).
The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration known as PAGASA issued a weather bulletin for the northern Philippines as Maysak, known locally as Chedeng, approaches. PAGASA expects to raise Public Storm Warning Signal #1 over Bicol and Samar Provinces, possibly suspending sea travel over those areas. PAGASA warned of moderate to heavy within the 150 to 200 km (93.2 to 123.4 miles) radius of the typhoon, and flash flooding in low-lying areas. Heavy rains are also likely to cause landslides in mountain slopes particularly over Aurora-Isabela area. Storm surges and sea surface waves of up to 4 meters (13.2 feet) are possible over the eastern coast of Samar, Bicol and Aurora-Quezon. For updated warnings, visit: http://www.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/index.php/tropical-cyclones/weather-bulletin.
At 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT), Typhoon Maysak's maximum sustained winds had dropped to 105 knots (120.8 mph/194.5 kph), bringing it out of super typhoon status. As seen in wind data from NASA's ISS-RapidScat, those hurricane-force winds were huddled close to the center of circulation, extending out 30 nautical miles (34.5 miles/55.5 km) from the center.
Maysak was centered near 13.2 north latitude and 132.6 east longitude, about 681 nautical miles east of Manila, Philippines. Maysak was moving to the west-northwest at 8 knots (9.2 mph/14.8 kph)
According to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), strong increased vertical wind shear continues to weaken the storm. JTWC noted in their discussion that an "SSMI image reveals erosion of deep convection over the western semi-circle with the bulk of deep convection displaced over the northeast quadrant, however, the system eyewall remains intact with a microwave eye feature."
Maysak is moving west to west-northwest through the Philippine Sea, and toward the northern Philippines. The JTWC is forecasting landfall as a typhoon in the Cagayan Valley region late April 4 (Universal Time). PAGASA said that Maysak is estimated to make landfall over eastern coast of Aurora or Isabela by late Saturday (April 4) to early Sunday (April 5).
Maysak is expected to weaken to a tropical depression as it moves in a northwestern direction across the northern Philippines and re-emerges into the South China Sea on April 5.
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
Apr. 02, 2015- Update #1 - TRMM Satellite Makes Direct Pass over Super Typhoon Maysak
The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite delivered a remarkable image of Super Typhoon Maysak on March 31. TRMM obtained an image straight over the top of a super typhoon with a double eye-wall, Super Typhoon Maysak, as it roared through the warm waters of the West Pacific south of Guam. This image with the TRMM Precipitation Radar or PR was taken at 14:15 UTC (10:15 a.m. EDT) on March 31, 2015 and shows the rain intensities within the very heart of Super Typhoon Maysak as it undergoes an eye wall replacement cycle.
Mature, intense tropical cyclones can and often do undergo what is known as an eyewall replacement cycle wherein a new eye wall or ring of convection within the outer rain bands forms further out from the storm's center, outside the radius of the original eye wall, and begins to choke off the original eye wall, starving it of moisture and momentum. Eventually, if the cycle is completed, the original eye wall dissipates and this new outer eye wall can contract and replace the old eye wall. The storm's intensity can fluctuate over this period, initially weakening as the inner eye wall dies before again strengthening as the outer eye wall contracts. Eye wall replacement cycles are hard to forecast.
Here TRMM provided a look at a classic eye wall replacement cycle in progress. At the very center is the eye of Super Typhoon Maysak, which is devoid of rain where air is descending. Immediately surrounding the eye is the original inner eye wall where air is rising in convective updrafts and releasing heat through condensation. The vast amounts of heat being released into the storm as a result is known as latent heating and is what drives the storm's circulation. The inner eye wall is identified by the nearly complete ring of very intense rainfall with rates on the order of 100 mm/hr or more (~4 inches/hr, shown by the white areas inside the light purple) in the southwestern semicircle. Outside of the inner eye wall is a very distinct ring of very weak rain (~5 mm/hr or less, shown in blue), known as the moat. The moat marks the area between the inner and outer eye walls where air that has already risen through the updrafts in the eye walls is now subsiding, suppressing rain. Next, outside of the moat is the new outer eye wall, shown by the nearly perfect concentric ring of moderate (shown in green) to heavy (shown in red) rain rates. Additional bands of light to moderate rain (blue and green areas, respectively) wrap around the northeast quadrant Maysak.
Another key aspect of Maysak's features as revealed by TRMM is their near perfect symmetry around the storm's center. This is a clear sign of the storm's intensity. The more intense the circulation, the more uniformly rain features are wrapped around the center. Indeed, at the time this image was taken by TRMM, Maysak's maximum sustained winds were estimated to be 140 knots (~161 mph) by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, making it a Category 5 super typhoon (equivalent to a Category 5 hurricane on the U.S. Saffir-Simpson scale).
Maysak is the first super typhoon of the season in the Northwest Pacific Basin. The storm is forecast to weaken before approaching the northern Philippines in the next couple of days. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA.
SSAI/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Apr. 01, 2015 - NASA Covers Super Typhoon Maysak's Rainfall, Winds, Clouds, Eye
NASA's fleet of satellites and instruments in space have covered Super Typhoon Maysak's rainfall, winds, clouds and an astronaut about the International Space Station captured a close-up photo of the storm's eye.
On April 1 at 01:35 UTC (March 31 at 9:35 p.m. EDT), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured a stunning view of Super Typhoon Maysak in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. The MODIS image clearly showed its eye and bands of powerful thunderstorms circling the eye, and wrapping into it from the east and west.
From the International Space Station, astronaut Terry Virts photographed Super Typhoon Maysak's 15 nautical-mile wide eye using a zoom lens on April 1, 2015.
The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM core observatory's Microwave Imager (GMI) revealed that Maysak was dropping rain at a rate of over 70 mm (2.8 inches) per hour northwest of a well-defined eye on April 1 at 12:15 UTC (8:15 a.m. EDT). The 12:11 UTC (8:11 a.m. EDT) GPM microwave image also showed the weakening of the deep convection on the southern edge of the storm.
Super typhoon Maysak's winds were near 130 knots (~150 mph) and the storm was north of Palau in the western Pacific Ocean when the Global Precipitation Measurement of GPM core observatory satellite flew overhead on April 1, 2015 at 1215 UTC (8:15 a.m. EDT). GPM's Microwave Imager (GMI) revealed that Maysak was dropping rain at a rate of over 70 mm (2.8 inches) per hour northwest of a well-defined eye.
On April 1 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) Super Typhoon Maysak, known in the Philippines as Chedeng, was centered near 11.6 north latitude and 135.6 east longitude, about 194 nautical miles (223 miles/359.3 km) northwest of Yap.
Maysak's maximum sustained winds were near 130 knots (149.6 mph/ 240.8 kph) with higher gusts. Maysak is a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Wind Scale. The super typhoon was moving to the west-northwest at 10 knots (11.5 mph/18.5 kph) and generating 44-foot-high seas (13.4 meters).
The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) noted that Maysak appears to be "weakening slightly, as can be seen by the increase in dry air entrainment (moving into the system) seen in the water vapor and total perceptible water loops (animated imagery)."
The JTWC forecast calls for Maysak to move northwest toward the Central Luzon Region of the Philippines. The storm is not expected to intensify further and begin weakening in the next day as vertical wind shear increases. JTWC is forecasting a landfall in Central Luzon on April 4.
Currently, there are no warnings posted in the Philippines, but residents should make preparations for the storm's approach. For updates on warnings and watches, visit: http://www.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/index.php/tropical-cyclones/weather-bulletin
Rob Gutro / Hal Pierce
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
Mar. 31, 2015 - NASA Sees Maysak Become a Super Typhoon
NASA's Aqua satellite captured an image of Typhoon Maysak as it strengthened into a super typhoon on March 31, reaching Category 5 hurricane status on the Saffir-Simpson Wind Scale. The TRMM and GPM satellites, both satellites are co-managed by NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency captured rainfall and cloud data that revealed heavy rainfall and high thunderstorms in the strengthening storm.
On March 31, in Micronesia a typhoon warning is in effect for Yap, Fais and Ulithi in Yap State. For updated warnings visit: http://www.prh.noaa.gov/data/GUM/HLSPQ1. Currently, there are no warnings in the Philippines.
The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite has been collecting valuable scientific data since November 1997. Early on March 30, the satellite collected rainfall data as it flew directly above Maysak at 04:14 UTC (12:14 a.m. EDT) when maximum sustained winds were near 85 knots (98 mph). Rainfall data was collected by TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) instruments and showed heaviest rainfall southwest of the center, and in fragmented bands of thunderstorms northeast of the center. In both of those places rainfall was in excess of 50 mm/2 inches per hour.
A little over eight hours later at 12:25 UTC (8:25 a.m. EDT) the Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM core observatory satellite captured rainfall data on Maysak. GPM rainfall data was combined with reflectivity data from GPM's Radar (Ku Band) to provide a 3-D image of Maysak's storm top heights. The Ku Band radar data sliced through the western side of the typhoon and showed that a few intense storms on this side of Maysak were reaching heights close to 16 km (9.9 miles)
The next day, March 31, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured this visible image of Super Typhoon Maysak at 3:55 UTC. The MODIS image showed the Maysak maintained its 15 nautical-mile (17.2 mile/27.7 km) wide eye.
On March 31 at 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT), Super typhoon Maysak's maximum sustained winds were near 140 knots (161.1 mph/ 259.3 kph). Hurricane-force winds extended 40 nautical miles (46 mile/74 km) from the center, and tropical storm-force winds extended 100 nautical miles (115 miles/185 km) from the center.
Maysak was centered near 10.0 north latitude and 141.3 east longitude, just 49 nautical miles (56.3 miles/90.7 km) east-northeast of Fais. Maysak was moving to the west-northwest at 12 knots. Maysak is generating 40-foot (12.9 meter) high seas.
Maysak is moving west-northwest through Yap State in Micronesia, and is continuing to strengthen. The JTWC forecast calls for Maysak to peak at 155 knots (178.4 mph/ 287.1 kph) in one or two days' time, before a weakening trend commences. Maysak is currently forecast to make landfall in Luzon sometime on April 5 as a typhoon.
Rob Gutro/Hal Pierce
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
Mar. 30, 2015 - NASA's ISS-RapidScat Sees Typhoon Maysak's Stronger Winds Become More Uniform
A tropical cyclone does not always have consistently strong winds all the way around it, and NASA's ISS-RapidScat instrument confirmed that was the case with Typhoon Maysak as it was strengthening in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. Over the course of three days, As the tropical cyclone strengthened, RapidScat saw strongest sustained winds around Typhoon Maysak expand and spread from the northern quadrant to other quadrants of the storm.
The International Space Station (ISS)-RapidScat instrument measures surface winds over the ocean. The ISS-RapidScat instrument gathered surface wind data from three passes over Typhoon Maysak from March 27 (when it was a tropical storm) to March 29.
Typhoon Maysak started out as Tropical Depression 04W when it formed near Pohnpei on March 27, 2015. The depression began moving west-northwest through the Federated States of Micronesia. At 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT) on March 27, 04W's maximum sustained winds were near 30 knots (34.5 mph/55.5 kph). On March 27 from 09:46 to 11:18 UTC RapidScat saw isolated areas in the northeastern quadrant of the storm with sustained winds near 25 m/s (55.9 mph/90 kph).
On March 28, Maysak's winds strengthened to near 65 knots (75 mph/120.4 kph). By March 29, Typhoon Maysak's winds increased to 85 knots (97.8 mph/157.4 kph).
On March 29 from 9:34 to 11:07 UTC those isolated areas of strongest winds appeared to concentrate in the northeastern quadrant around the storm's center of circulation. Later on March 29, when RapidScat viewed Maysak again between 20:22 and 21:54 UTC, wind speeds had increased and the strongest winds were near 35 m/s (78.2 mph/126 kph) over the northern quadrant with much stronger winds more uniform around the entire center near 30 m/s (67 mph/108 kph).
On March 30 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT), Typhoon Maysak's maximum sustained winds had again increased to 95 knots (109.3 mph/ 175.9 kph). It was centered near 9.0 north latitude and 144.8 east longitude, about 398 nautical miles east of Yap. Maysak was moving to the west at 10 knots (11.5 mph/18.5 kph). Maysak was generating very high, rough seas with heights to 34 feet (10.3 meters).
Maysak is moving west-northwest through the Federated States of Micronesia and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center forecast calls for the storm to continue intensifying to 120 knots in a day or two. After two days, the storm is expected to weaken and begin curving to the west-northwest.
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
Mar. 27, 2015 - NASA Sees Birth of Depression Near Pohnpei
[image-51]Tropical Depression 04W (04W) formed near Pohnpei on March 27, 2015, and was moving west-northwest through the Federated States of Micronesia. NASA's Aqua satellite captured infrared data that showed some strong thunderstorms within the intensifying storm.
AT 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT) on March 27, 04W's maximum sustained winds were near 30 knots (34.5 mph/55.5 kph). It was centered near 7.0 north latitude and 157.4 east longitude, just 48 nautical miles (56.3 miles/90.7 km) west of Pohnpei. A tropical storm watch was in effect for Losap, Chuuk, Fananu and Ulul in Chuuk State.
The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured infrared data on the storm. Infrared data measures cloud top temperatures, and temperatures of the powerful thunderstorms surrounding Tropical Cyclone 04W's center were as cold as -63F/-52C. NASA research has shown that thunderstorms with cloud tops that cold and that high into the atmosphere have the ability to drop heavy rainfall. The AIRS data was made into an image at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.
The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) expects 04W to move in a westerly direction for the next several days strengthening after passing Fananu and Chuuk. JTWC expects 04W to reach typhoon strength sometime on March 30 and then move near Yap the following day.