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Pam (Southern Pacific Ocean)
March 19, 2015

[image-157]NASA Sees a Colorful Sea in Cyclone Pam's Wake

Carbonate sediments lofted by Tropical Cyclone Pam were spotted when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured this image of the South Pacific Ocean on March 16 at 23:05 UTC (7:05 p.m. EDT). The cloud of blue is a sign of Tropical Cyclone Pam's passage. Pam was a Category 5 hurricane that churned the warm ocean waters and brought sediment from the ocean floor to the surface. It is the sediment that scatters light, giving the water its brilliant color.

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


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Mar. 18, 2015 - NASA-JAXA's GPM Satellite Close-up of Cyclone Pam's Rainfall 

As one of the strongest cyclones every recorded in the South Pacific Ocean, Cyclone Pam devastated the island archipelago of Vanuatu. The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM core observatory provided data on rain rates throughout the storm. At the end of Pam's life on March 17, NASA's RapidScat provided a look at the winds of the waning storm.

As the cyclone bore down on Vanuatu's central islands on the afternoon (local time) of March 13, 2015, Pam's maximum sustained winds were estimated to have increased to 270 kph (~167 mph) by the U.S. Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), making it a category 5 storm on the U.S. Saffir-Simpson Wind Scale. 

The storm caused immense, widespread damage with the islands of Erromango and Tanna suffering a direct hit.  Although damage is still being assessed, the number of reported fatalities fortunately has been rather low at 11  considering the power of the storm.

NASA's GPM Core observatory satellite passed over Pam as the cyclone began pulling away from Vanuatu on the 14th.  The image was taken at 03:51 UTC (2:51 p.m. local time) on March 14, 2015 and showed rain rates within Cyclone Pam observed from GPM's microwave (GMI, in the outer swath) and radar (DPR, inner swath) instruments.  GPM showed that Pam was still a very powerful storm.  A well-defined, closed inner eyewall denoted by the annulus of intense rain rates up to 50 mm/2 inches per hour, is indicative of a well-formed intense cyclonic circulation.  Typically the faster the winds, the more symmetrical the precipitation features around the storm's center.  At that time, Pam's maximum sustained winds were still estimated at 135 knots (~155 mph) by JTWC, putting it near the top of the Saffir-Simpson category 4 scale.

[image-143]TRMM and GPM are joint missions between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA.

After the GPM image was taken, Pam continued moving southward, tracking east of New Caledonia, and continued to weaken further.

By March 17, Pam had already moved past northern New Zealand and had become an extra-tropical cyclone.

The RapidScat instrument aboard the International Space Station (ISS) measures surface winds. When the ISS passed over Extra-tropical Cyclone Pam on March 17 RapidScat gathered data on surface winds that showed the strongest winds stretched over the northern quadrant and were near 25 m/s (56 mph/90 kph). Pam continued to weaken while moving in a southerly direction on March 18 through the southern Pacific Ocean.

Steve Lang
SSAI/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center


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Mar. 17, 2015 - NASA Sees Vanuatu 4 Days After Category 5 Tropical Cyclone Pam

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured this visible image of Vanuatu on March 16 at 23:05 UTC (7:05 p.m. EDT). 

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
 


[image-256]RapidScat Eyes Ex-Tropical Cyclone Pam's Winds Near Chatham Island 

The New Zealand Meteorological Service issued a Storm Warning for the Chatham Islands today as NASA's RapidScat instrument found that winds in one quadrant of Ex-Tropical Cyclone Pam is still generating tropical-storm-force winds east of its center.

The International Space Station's RapidScat instrument captured data on Ex-Tropical Cyclone Pam's winds on March 16 from 08:30 to 11:36 UTC. RapidScat revealed sustained winds over 30 meters per second (108 kph/67 mph) were still occurring southeast of the center.

The forecast calls for southwesterly winds to 50 knots (57 mph/92 kph) with high seas easing. The "easterly swell 4 meters and southwest swell rising to 7 meters. Poor visibility in heavy rain at times.

On March 17 (or 12:17 a.m. local time, March 18), the New Zealand Meteorlogical Service bulletin stated "Ex Tropical Cyclone Pam lies southeast of the Chatham Islands today, leaving a south to southwest flow over New Zealand. A ridge moves onto New Zealand on Thursday."  For updated forecasts,visit: http://www.metservice.com/marine-surf/coastal/chatham-islands

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


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Mar. 16, 2015 - NASA Sees Extra-Tropical Storm Pam Moving Away from New Zealand

Pam, a once powerful Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale is now an extra-tropical storm moving past northern New Zealand. NASA's Aqua satellite and the ISS-RapidScat instrument provided a look at the storm's structure and wind speed.

On March 15 at 02:05 UTC, the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible image of Tropical Cyclone Pam off northern New Zealand as it was becoming an extra-tropical cyclone. The image showed strong thunderstorms around the center of circulation and east of the center. Cloud in Pam's southern quadrant had reached northern New Zealand at that time.

The RapidScat instrument aboard the International Space Station (ISS) measures surface winds. When the ISS passed over Pam on March 15 RapidScat gathered data on surface winds that showed the strongest winds stretched from the northeast to the south of the center near 35 m/s (78 mph/126 kph). On March 16, after Pam made its transition to an extra-tropical storm, RapidScat gathered surface wind data on the storm from 2:20 to 3:45 UTC (March 15 from 8:20 to 11:45 p.m. EDT). RapidScat measured maximum sustained winds near 25 meters per second /56 mph/90 kph, west and south of the center.

The New Zealand Meteorological Service (NZMS) issued a bulletin on Extra-tropical storm Pam on March 16 at 25:35 local time. The bulletin included a Severe Weather Watch for Wellington that is valid through 8:35 p.m. local time on Tuesday, March 17.

The NZMS noted that Cyclone Pam was moving to the southeast but southerly gales for the east and south of the north island will be slow to subside.

Cyclone Pam was about 400 km east of Gisborne and moving to the southeast away from New Zealand and towards the Chatham Islands. NZMS noted "The heavy rain, severe southerly gales and extremely large seas that affected eastern parts of the North Island will continue to ease Monday night and Tuesday morning. However, a warning remains in force for heavy rain about the ranges of Hawkes Bay until early Tuesday morning. Also, in exposed parts of the east and south of the North Island, south to southwest gales continue Monday night and much of Tuesday."

The watch in place calls for the possibility of gale-force southerly winds in Wellington and dangerous coastal conditions through Tuesday. Heavy ocean swells and very large waves are forecast to continue to affecting the coast from East Cape to Cape Palliser Monday night (local time), and should gradually ease during Tuesday, according to NZMS.  For updated forecasts from NZMS, visit: http://www.metservice.com/national/home.

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


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Mar. 13, 2015 - NASA Sees Major Tropical Cyclone Pam Near Vanuatu

The Southern Pacific Ocean's Tropical Cyclone Pam was a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Wind Scale when NASA's Aqua satellite passed overhead. Aqua saw the eye of the major hurricane just to the east of Vanuatu.

The MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible image of Pam on Friday, March 13, 2015 at 02:20 UTC. The image showed Pam's 15 nautical mile (17.2 mile/27.7 km) wide eye just east of Vanuatu's islands. Thunderstorms wrapped tightly around Pam's center.

Another instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured infrared data on the storm. Infrared data measured cloud top temperatures, and temperatures of the powerful thunderstorms surrounding Pam's eye were as cold as -81F (-61C/210K). NASA research has shown that thunderstorms with cloud tops that cold, and that high into the atmosphere have the ability to drop heavy rainfall. The AIRS data was made into an image at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. The image was false-colored to show temperature differences.

On March 13 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT), Tropical Cyclone Pam had maximum sustained winds near 145 knots (166.9 mph/268.5 kph). The Joint Typhoon Warning Center forecast indicates that Pam will begin weakening later in the day. Pam was centered near 18.3 south latitude and 168.9 east longitude. That's just 45 km (28 miles) east of Port Vila and 105 km (65.2 miles) north northwest of Erromango, Vanuatu. That puts the center about 302 nautical miles (347.5 miles/559.3 km) north-northeast of Noumea, New Caledonia, has tracked south-southwestward at 8 knots (9.2 mph/14.8 kph).

Warnings continue from the Solomon Islands south to New Zealand. In the Solomon Islands a tropical cyclone warming remained in effect for the Temotu province, and a tropical cyclone watch was in effect for the remaining provinces.

Vanuatu is bearing the brunt of Pam today. A tropical cyclone warning is in effect for Torba, Penama, Sanma, Malampa, Shefa and Tafea provinces. A Red Alert is now in effect for the Sanma, Malampa, Torba, Penama, Shefa and Tafea provinces.

According to the Vanuatu Meteorological Services on March 13 (March 14 at 1:02 a.m. VUT Vanuatu local time) hurricane force winds of 255 kph (158.4 mph) were affecting the Shefa, Malampa and Penama provinces and slowly extending to the Tafea province. Storm-force winds up to 120 kph (74.5 mph) are expected to continue affecting Sanma and Torba provinces today, but those winds will be decreasing as Pam moves southward.

In additional to hurricane-force winds, very rough to extremely high seas with heavy swells were affecting the Torba, Penama, Sanma, Malampa, Shefa and Tafea provinces. For updated warnings in Vanuatu, visit: http://www.meteo.gov.vu/TropicalCyclones/Warning/tabid/172/Default.aspx

Forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center noted on March 13, "As the cyclone tracks more poleward (south), it will encounter increasing vertical wind shear and cooling sea surface temperatures that will slowly erode it. Tropical Cyclone Pam will begin extra-tropical transition by Saturday, March 14 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT).

Once Pam leaves Vanuatu, it is forecast to head to northern New Zealand, where it expected to be an extra-tropical cyclone.

New Zealand has a severe weather watch is in effect for parts of the North Islands, including Northland, Coromandel Peninsula, Bay of Plenty Rotorua, Gisborne, and Hawkes Bay. Pam's forecast to track calls for the tropical cyclone to move southwards and pass east of the country during Monday and Tuesday, March 16 and 17. For updated forecasts for New Zealand, visit: http://www.metservice.com/warnings/severe-weather-watch.

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


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Mar. 12, 2015 - Tropical Cyclone Pam Gives NASA an Eye-Opening View

NASA's Terra satellite passed over Tropical Cyclone Pam as it continued intensifying in the Southern Pacific Ocean and captured an image of the storm's 20 nautical mile-wide, cloud-filled eye. Pam is a strong Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Wind Scale and is strengthening.

Pam has been intensifying over the last couple of days and forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) expect it to continue strengthening as it heads past Vanuatu and toward northern New Zealand.

When NASA's Terra satellite passed over Pam on March 11 at 22:50 UTC (6:50 p.m. EDT), the MODIS instrument captured visible data on the storm. The data was made into an image at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The image showed a thick band of powerful thunderstorms wrapped around the eye of the storm. Banding of thunderstorms from the east and north wrapped into the center of circulation. At the time of the image, Pam was moving through the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu was southwest of the storm.

On March 12 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) Tropical cyclone Pam's maximum sustained winds were near 135 knots (155.4 mph/250 kph) making it a strong Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Wind Scale. Hurricane-force winds extended 30 nautical miles (34.5 miles/55.5 km) out from the center, while tropical storm force winds extended as far as 170 nautical miles (195.6 miles/314.8 km) making the storm over 340 nautical miles (391.3 miles/629.7 km) in diameter.

It was centered near 14.7 south latitude and 169.8 east longitude, about 521 nautical miles (200 miles/ 965 km) north-northeast of Noumea, New Caledonia.  Pam was moving to the south-southeast at 8 knots (9.2 mph/14.8 kph).

Pam was also generating dangerous seas and high swells along the coastlines in the Solomon Islands. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) noted that wave heights were up to 40 feet (12.1 meters).

Warnings and watches remain in the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and New Zealand. In the Solomon Islands there is a tropical cyclone warning in effect for the Temotu province, and a watch remains in effect for remaining provinces. In Vanuatu a tropical cyclone warning is in effect for Torba, Penama, Sanma, Malampa, Shefa and Tafea provinces. In New Zealand warnings are up for parts of the North island, which is likely to be affected by severe weather on March 16, especially Gisborne and northern Hawkes Bay.  

JTWC forecasters expect Pam to peak in intensity tomorrow, March 13, when maximum sustained winds are expected to reach 150 knots (172 mph/277.8 kph) making it a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Wind Scale. After tomorrow, a weakening trend is expected as Pam starts moving in more of a southeasterly direction. 

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


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Mar. 11, 2015 - TRMM Sees Large and More Powerful Cyclone Pam, Warnings Posted

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission or TRMM satellite saw powerful towering thunderstorms in Tropical Cyclone Pam, indicating the storm was strengthening as it moved through the Solomon Islands. Pam has now triggered warnings in the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and New Zealand.

In the Solomon Islands, a tropical cyclone warning was in effect today, March 11, for Temotu, Malaita and Makira provinces. A tropical cyclone watch was in effect for Rennell and Bellona, Central, Isabel, Western, Guadalcanal and the Choiseul provinces.

In Vanuatu, a tropical cyclone warning is in effect for the provinces of Torba, Penama, Sanma and Malampa. In the next day to day and a half, the Shefa and Tafea provinces will feel the effects of Pam.

Additional warnings are also in effect in New Zealand as Pam continues to head south. Parts of the North Island are likely to be affected by severe weather on Monday, March 16. The areas cited under the warning are Gisborne and northern Hawkes Bay. 

The TRMM satellite had a good look at Cyclone Pam on March 10, 2015 at 1127 UTC 7:27 a.m. EDT) when maximum sustained winds were estimated at 80 knots (92 mph). TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) showed that heavy rainfall from Pam covered a large area of the South Pacific Ocean near the Santa Cruz Islands. The eye of the intensifying tropical cyclone was shown passing to the east of the Santa Cruz Islands.

One of Pam's intense feeder (thunderstorm) bands northwest of the islands was dropping rain at a rate of over 158 mm (6.2 inches) per hour. TRMM's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument covered the area to the northwest of Pam's eye and data was used to create a 3-D view of the storm that showed some cloud top heights there were reaching heights above 16 km (9.9 miles). TRMM is managed by both NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

On Mar. 10, 2015, between 15:15 to 16:47 UTC, the International Space Station's  RapidScat instrument showed Tropical Cyclone Pam's strongest maximum sustained winds were near 35 meters per second (78.9 mph/126 kph) north and east of the center of circulation.

On March 11 at 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT) Tropical Cyclone Pam's (known as 11F in Fiji) maximum sustained winds were near 105 knots (121 mph/194 kph). It was centered near 11.2 south latitude and 169.7 east longitude, about 653 nautical miles (751.5 miles/ 1,209 km) northwest of Suva, Fiji. Pam was moving to the south-southwest at 2 knots (2.3 mph/3.7 kph). 

Pam continues moving south through the Solomon Islands, while intensifying. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center forecast takes Pam east of Vanuatu. The forecast then calls for Pam to become extra-tropical when it passes northeast of New Zealand.

Rob Gutro / Hal Pierce
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


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Mar. 10, 2015 - NASA Looks Inside and Outside of Tropical Cyclone Pam   

NASA's Terra satellite provided an outside look at Tropical Cyclone Pam while the RapidScat instrument that flies aboard the International Space Station provided an inside look at the surface winds generated by the storm. The GPM core satellite provided another inside look at Pam and provided data on where the heavy rainfall was occurring within the storm.

On March 9 and 10, Tropical Cyclone Pam strengthened to hurricane-force as it neared Vanuatu in the Southern Pacific Ocean.

On March 10 (11 p.m. local time), the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) issued a Severe Weather Warning Bulletin for the Northern Islands of Vanuatu. The warning noted that Tropical Cyclone Pam was located northeast of the Torba province, and was slowly moving in a south southeasterly direction. The VMGD forecast noted: Heavy rainfall expected to affect Torba, Sanma and Penama. Flash floods and expansion of river banks possible. People in these affected areas are advised to take extra precautions, especially those areas close to river banks and in low lying areas. For updated warnings, visit: http://www.meteo.gov.vu/.

The MODIS or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured a visible image of Tropical Cyclone Pam in the South Pacific Ocean on March 9 at 23:00 UTC (7:00 p.m. EDT). The image showed that Pam's center had consolidated within the previous 24 hours and was represented by a tight band of thunderstorms circling it. A wide band of fragmented thunderstorms in the northern and western quadrants of the storm were wrapping into the center from the north.  Another thick, fragmented band of thunderstorms curved from the east to the south and west, where it wrapped into the center of circulation.

The MODIS image showed that the southern band of thunderstorms were over Gaua and Vanua Lava, the largest and second largest of the Banks Islands in Torba Province, Vanuatu.

The GPM or Global Precipitation Mission's Core Observatory flew over Pam on March 9, 2015 at 0501 UTC (1:01 a.m. EDT). Pam formed earlier in the day in the Solomon Islands in the Southern Pacific Ocean. Rainfall from GPM's Microwave Imager (GMI) showed that Pam was dropping rain at a rate of 133.5 mm (5.26 inches) per hour.

A 3-D image of the thunderstorms that make up Pam was created at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. In the 3-D image, very powerful thunderstorms measured by GPM's Radar (Ku Band) reached heights of over 16.6 km (10.3 miles). The precipitation within these tall storms are providing energy called latent heat that drives the circulation of the storm. Usually, the more heat that is being released, the more intense the storm will become. This heating works best when it occurs near the center of the storm.

The International Space Station's RapidScat instrument captured a look at Tropical Cyclone Pam's surface winds. RapidScat measured the winds from March 9 at 3:46 to 5:19 UTC. Measurements revealed that sustained winds at the surface were as high as 56 mph/90 kph/25 meters per second, near the center and northern quadrant of the storm. 

On March 10 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT), Pam's maximum sustained winds had increased to 80 knots (92 mph/148.2 kph). Pam was centered near 10.8 south latitude and 170.2 east longitude, about 651 nautical miles (749.7 miles/ 1,206 km) northwest of Suva, Fiji. Pam has tracked south-southwestward at 4 knots (4.6 mph/7.4 kph).

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) predicts that Pam will be increasingly powerful and become a dangerous category five tropical cyclone on the Saffir-Simpson wind scale. JTWC expects Pam's winds to strengthen to about 140 knots (161.1 mph/259.3 kph) in the next couple of days as it continues in a southerly direction through the Southern Pacific Ocean.

Rob Gutro / Hal Pierce
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


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Mar. 09, 2015 - NASA Eyes Rainfall in Newly Formed Tropical Cyclone Pam

Tropical Cyclone Pam formed in the Solomon Islands in the Southern Pacific Ocean early on March 9. The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM core satellite flew overhead and found some heavy rain occurring when it measured rainfall rates within the intensifying storm.

On March 9, a tropical cyclone watch was in effect for all of the Solomon Islands

GPM is managed by both NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. From its orbit in space, the GPM satellite has the ability to measure the rates in which rain is falling in storms. GPM passed over newborn Tropical Cyclone Pam on March 9 at 05:01 UTC (1:01 a.m. EST). GPM identified heavy rainfall in excess of 1.4 inches (35.5 mm) per hour in a fragmented bands of thunderstorms north of Pam's center of circulation.

At 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EST) on March 9, Tropical Cyclone Pam's maximum sustained winds were near 45 knots (51.7 mph/83.3 kph). Pam was moving to the southeast at 3 knots (3.4 mph/5.5 kph). It was centered near 8.5 south latitude and 169.8 east longitude, about 760 nautical miles (874.6 miles/1,408 km) northwest of Nadi, Fiji.

Pam is forecast to move southeast and south while intensifying to hurricane-strength over the next couple of days. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) noted that rapid intensification is a possibility by Thursday, March 12. The JTWC forecast takes Pam between the island of Fiji and New Caledonia over the next four days.

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

Tropical Cyclone Pam
GPM identified heavy rainfall in excess of 1.4 inches per hour in a fragmented bands of thunderstorms north of Tropical Cyclone Pam's center on March 9 at 05:01 UTC (1:01 a.m. EST). Clouds were captured by Japan's MTSAT satellite.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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MODIS image of Pam
The MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured this visible image of Tropical Cyclone Pam in the South Pacific Ocean on March 9 at 23:00 UTC.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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TRMM sees thunderstorms in Pam
On March 10, TRMM saw thunderstorms northwest of the Santa Cruz Islands was dropping rain at a rate of over 158 mm (6.2 inches) per hour and cloud tops reached heights above 16 km (9.9 miles).
Image Credit: 
NASA/JAXA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
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MODIS image of Pam
On March 15 at 02:05 UTC, the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured this visible image of Tropical Cyclone Pam off northern New Zealand as it was becoming an extra-tropical cyclone.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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Terra image of Vanuatu
Tropical Cyclone Pam was a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale when it affected Vanuatu on March 13.
Image Credit: 
NASA's Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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GPM image of Pam
NASA-JAXA's GPM core satellite captured rain rates in Tropical Cyclone Pam at 03:51 UTC (2:51 p.m. local time) on March 14, 2015. Heaviest rain was falling at 50 mm per hour (red).
Image Credit: 
NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
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NASA-JAXA's GPM Satellite Close-up of Cyclone Pam's Rainfall IMAGE CAPTION: NASA-JAXA's GPM core satellite captured rain rates in Tropical Cyclone Pam at 03:51 UTC (2:51 p.m. local time) on March 14, 2015. Heaviest rain was falling at 50 mm per hour (red).
Image Credit: 
NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
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Carbonate sediments from Pam in the South Pacific
Carbonate sediments lofted by Tropical Cyclone Pam in the South Pacific were spotted by NASA’s Terra satellite on March 16 at 23:05 UTC (7:05 p.m. EDT).
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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GPM image of Pam
The GPM satellite showed that Pam was dropping rain at a rate of 133.5 mm (5.26 inches) per hour and thunderstorm tops reached heights over 16.6 km (10.3 miles).
Image Credit: 
NASA/JAXA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
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RapidScat image of Pam
On March 9, RapidScat revealed sustained winds over 56 mph/90 kph/25 meters per second, occurring near the center and northern quadrant of Tropical Cyclone Pam.
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL, Doug Tyler
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TRMM measures rainfall rates in Pam
On March 10, TRMM saw thunderstorms northwest of the Santa Cruz Islands was dropping rain at a rate of over 158 mm (6.2 inches) per hour and cloud tops reached heights above 16 km (9.9 miles).
Image Credit: 
NASA/JAXA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
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RapidScat image of Pam
On Mar. 10, 2015, RapidScat showed Tropical Cyclone Pam's strongest maximum sustained winds were near 35 meters per second (78.9 mph/126 kph) north and east of the center of circulation.
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL/Doug Tyler
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MODIS image of Pam
NASA's Terra satellite captured this visible image of Tropical Cyclone Pam showing her eye in the South Pacific Ocean on March 11 at 22:50 UTC.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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Aqua image of Pam
NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible image of Pam on Friday, March 13, 2015 at 02:20 UTC. Pam's wide eye just east of Vanuatu's islands and thunderstorms wrapped tightly around the center.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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AIRS image of Pam
This false-colored infrared image of Category 5 Cyclone Pam shows the small eye just east of Vanuatu, surrounded by very cold cloudtop temperatures indicating powerful thunderstorms (purple).
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
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RapidScat image of Pam
The RapidScat instrument aboard the International Space Station captured two views of Tropical Cyclone Pam's winds. On March 15 at 11 UTC and March 16 at 3:45 UTC. Red indicates strongest winds.
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL, Doug Tyler
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RapidScat image of Pam
RapidScat revealed sustained winds over 30 meters per second/108 kph/67 mph (in red) were still occurring southeast of Pam's center on March 16.
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL/Doug Tyler
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RapidScat Image of Pam
On March 17, RapidScat showed Pam's strongest winds stretched over the northern quadrant and were near 25 m/s (56 mph/90 kph).
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL/Doug Tyler
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Page Last Updated: March 19th, 2015
Page Editor: Lynn Jenner