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Hudhud (Northern Indian Ocean)
October 21, 2014

[image-113]NASA Sees Himalayan Snow from Cyclone Hudhud's Remnants

Question: When does a Tropical Cyclone drop snowfall?

Answer: When it makes landfall in India and the moisture moves over the Himalayas as Cyclone Hudhud has done. When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Himalayan Mountains, the MODIS instrument captured this image of snow on the ground on Oct. 16 at 0705 UTC (3:50 a.m. EDT). Cyclone Hudhud made landfall in eastern India and moved over the Himalayas dropping snowfall in Nepal and southwestern China.

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


NASA Maps Cyclone Hudhud's Heavy Rainfall

[image-95][image-150]The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission or TRMM satellite monitors rainfall in the tropics from its orbit in space. Data from TRMM was used to create maps showing rainfall totals as Cyclone Hudhud made landfall in east central India.

Cyclone Hudhud, which reached the equivalent of a category 4 hurricane on the U.S. Saffir-Simpson scale over the Bay of Bengal, weakened slightly before making landfall Sunday morning (local time) on the central southeast coast of India near the port city of Visakhapatnam. Hudhud came ashore with wind gusts of up to 120 mph and so far is being blamed for 24 fatalities in India.

The TRMM-based, near-real time Multi-satellite Precipitation data (TMPA) analysis is used to monitor rainfall over the global Tropics. A TMPA rainfall analysis for the period 7-14 October 2014 over India and the surrounding region shows the rainfall associated with the passage of Hudhud. Rainfall totals were highest over the open ocean where upwards of 550 mm (~22 inches) may have fallen; over land, the highest totals are 200 to 250 mm (~8 to 12 inches) and were along the coast near where Hudhud made landfall.

Farther inland, the amounts of are lower, generally on the order of 50 to 100 mm (~2 to 4 inches); however, as the remnants of Hudhud continue to track closer to the foothills of the Himalayas, the surge of moisture associated with Hudhud is acting to reinvigorate the monsoon and has started to bring heavy rains to parts of Nepal and northern India.

TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA.

Steve Lang and Hal Pierce
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland


Oct. 14 - NASA Satellite Spots Hudhud's Remnants

[image-77]Cyclone Hudhud made landfall in east-central India on Oct. 12 and caused a lot of damage and several fatalities as it moved inland and weakened to a remnant low pressure area. NASA saw those remnants on Oct. 14.

When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Indochina, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument provided picture proof that the remnants of Typhoon Hudhud were still over India, Nepal, and China. Aqua passed over the region on Oct. 14 at 08:05 UTC (4:05 a.m. EDT).

Infrared satellite imagery and multispectral satellite imagery indicated that Hudhud made landfall near Visakhapatnam at about 0700 UTC (3 a.m. EDT) Oct. 12. At 11 a.m. EDT, Hudhud was inland and centered near 18.4 north and 82.5 east, about 30 nautical miles west-northwest of Visakhapatnam, Hudhud was moving northwestward at 8 knots and maximum sustained winds were still near 105 knots, making it hurricane-force over land.

Hudhud's hurricane-force winds destroyed the Cyclone Warning Centre. According to Chief Minister N. ChandrababuNaidu, Visakhapatnam and the neighboring districts of Vizianagaram and Srikakulam reported many damages from the storm and some reports indicated over 20 deaths.   

Hudhud's remnants are expected to dissipate over land.

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


[image-114]Oct. 12, 2014 - NASA Sees Cyclone Hudhud Approaching India's Coast

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Cyclone Hudhud as it was nearing east-central India's coastline on Oct. 11.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument aboard Aqua captured infrared data on the storm on Oct. 11 at 07:23 UTC (3:23 a.m. EDT)  that showed cloud top temperatures had dropped, indicating stronger uplift and stronger thunderstorms. That's an indication that the storm has strengthened in the last day.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center noted that animated infrared satellite imagery shows the eye feature has become cloud filled while the overall structure of the system has remained unchanged while remaining symmetric (rounded) and with bands of thunderstorms wrapping into the center.  Radar imagery from Visakhapatnam shows the system has remained tightly wrapped and reveals a defined eye feature.

On Oct. 11 at 2100 UTC (5 p.m. EDT), Cyclone Hudhud's maximum sustained winds increased to 110 knots (75 mph/120 kph), which classifies as a  typhoon on the Saffir-Simpson scale. It was centered near 16.8 north and 80.9 east, about 102 nautical miles East of Visakhapatnam, India. Hudhud was moving to the northwestward at 4 knots.

Hudhud is forecast to continue intensifying prior to landfall under good environmental conditions and should peak near 115 knots and weaken quickly. Hudhud is expected to dissipate on Monday, Oct. 13 over land.

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


[image-96]Oct. 10, 2014 - NASA Sees Intensifying Tropical Cyclone Hudhud Headed for Landfall in India

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Cyclone Hudhud on Oct. 10 as it reached hurricane-force. 

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite read temperatures of thunderstorm cloudtops that make up Tropical Cyclone Hudhud when it passed overhead on Oct. 9 at 19:53 UTC (3:53 p.m. EDT). The data showed the coldest cloud top temperatures were in thunderstorms circling a developing eye. Cloud top temperatures were as cold as -63F/-53C, which have the potential for dropping heavy rainfall.

Hudhud's maximum sustained winds were nearer 75 knots (86.3 mph/138.9 kph)  on Oct. 10 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT). It was centered near 15.5 north and 86.7 east, about 250 nautical miles (155.3 miles) southeast Visakhapatnam, India. Hudhud has tracked northwestward at 6 knots (6.9 mph/11.1 kph).

Forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center indicated on Oct. 10 that animated enhanced infrared satellite imagery showed that bands of thunderstorms have become more tightly wrapped into the low-level center.  In addition, microwave satellite data revealed an eye in the storm.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) expects the cyclone to remain on a generally west-northwestward trajectory over the next couple of days. Forecasters at JWTC noted that because conditions are favorable in the area, Hudhud is expected to intensify and peak around 100 knots before landfall near Visakhapatnam late on Oct. 12 (EDT). For updated forecasts, visit India's Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre (RSMC): http://www.rsmcnewdelhi.imd.gov.in.

After landfall, Hudhud is expected to erode quickly because of interaction with land, and dissipate.

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


[image-69]NASA Eyes Tropical Cyclone Hudhud as Warnings Posted for East-Central India

NASA's Aqua satellite flew over Tropical Cyclone Hudhud on Oct. 9 and took a picture of the storm that showed it was still somewhat elongated, but more organized than the previous day. Another NASA satellite provided the hint of a developing eye. Warnings for winds, rain and surf are already in effect for the northern Andhra Pradesh coast and south Odisha coastline of eastern India as Hudhud approaches.

Tropical Cyclone Hudhud formed on Oct. 8 and began moving from east to west across the Bay of Bengal, Northern Indian Ocean.  

On Oct. 9 at 07:45 UTC (3:45 a.m. EDT), the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured an image of Tropical Cyclone Hudhud in the Bay of Bengal. Although the image showed that Hudhud looked somewhat elongated from east to west, the cyclone has been consolidating and getting more organized over the previous 24 hours. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) stated that animated multispectral satellite imagery taken early on Oct. 9 showed improving organization of the system, with well-defined curved banding of thunderstorms now beginning to tightly wrap into a consolidating low-level circulation center.

NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission satellite provided a microwave look at Hudhud and saw a ragged microwave eye at 05:56 UTC (1:56 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 9, indicating the storm was getting stronger and more organized.

At 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT), Hudhud's maximum sustained winds were near 60 knots (69 moh/111 kph). Hudhud's center was located near 13.9 longitude and 88.4 east latitude, about 534 nautical miles (614 miles/989 km) south of Kolkata, India. Hudhud is moving to the west-northwestward at 6 knots (6.9 mph/11.1 kph). Hudhud is expected to reach typhoon strength before making landfall in east central India.

JTWC forecasters note that analysis of the upper-level of the atmosphere (troposphere) indicates the system is located in a generally favorable environment. Hudhud is moving along the southern edge of a subtropical ridge (elongated area) of high pressure anchored to the north. The cyclone is expected to remain on a general west-northwestward trajectory.

According to the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre for Tropical Cyclones over the North Indian Ocean or RSMC, Hudhud is forecast to cross North Andhrapradesh coast around Visakhapatnam during the afternoon of Oct. 12.

On Oct. 9, the RSMC issued the following warning for north Andhra Pradesh coast and south Odish as Hudhud nears for landfall:  A Heavy Rainfall Warning is in effect. Under the influence of the system, rainfall at most places with heavy (6.5 to 12.4 cm/2.5 to 4.8 inches) to very heavy falls (12.5 to 24.4 cm/4.9 to 9.6 inches) and isolated totals greater than 24.5 cm over extremely east Godavari, Visakhapatnam, Vijayanagaram and Srikakulam districts of north coastal Andhra Pradesh and south Odisha from the evening of Oct. 11 (local time) onwards. Rainfall would occur at most places with heavy to very heavy rainfall at isolated places over remaining districts of Andhra Pradesh and north coastal Odisha during the same period.

In addition to the Heavy Rainfall Warning, Storm Surge Warning and High Wind Warning. The RSMC noted: Squally wind speed reaching 50 to 60 kph gusting to 70 kph would affect the area along and off the northern Andhra Pradesh coast and southern Odisha coast from the morning (local time) hours on Oct. 11 and onwards. RSMC expects winds to increase to 130 to 140 kph (80 to 87 mph) with higher gusts from the morning of Oct. 12 (local time) along and off north Andhra coast and 80 to 90 kph (49.7 to 56 mph) along and off south Odisha coast. Storm surge of about 1 to 2 meters (3.2 to 6.4 feet) above astronomical tide would inundate low lying areas of east Godavari, Visakhapatnam, Vijayanagaram and Srikakulam districts of north coastal Andhra Pradesh at the time of landfall.

For updated warnings and watches, visit the RSMC website: http://www.rsmcnewdelhi.imd.gov.in/images/bulletin/indian.pdf

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


[image-50]Oct. 08, 2014 - NASA Sees Newborn Tropical Storm Hudhud in Northern Indian Ocean

The Northern Indian Ocean has awakened after a tropical slumber and created Tropical Storm Hudhud on Oct. 8 and NASA's Aqua satellite passed overhead.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument that flies aboard  NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Cyclone Hudhud on Oct. 8 at 6:53 UTC (2:53 a.m. EDT and captured infrared data on the storm revealing bands of strong thunderstorms around the center.  

Animated infrared satellite imagery showed that the low-level circulation center was consolidating, and there is an improvement in the banding of thunderstorms wrapping into a defined center. Another image showed tightly-curved banding of thunderstorms and an eye in microwave data.

On Oct. 8 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT), Hudhud had maximum sustained winds near 45 knots (51.7 mph/83.3 kph). It was centered near 13.2 north and 90.4 east. It was centered about 562 nautical miles (646.7 miles/1,041 kph) south of Chittagong, India. Hudhud was moving to the west-northwest at 9 knots (10.3 mph/16.6 kph).  

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects Hudhud to reach hurricane strength and make landfall near Visakhapatnam on Oct. 10.

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

AIRS image of Hudhud
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Cyclone Hudhud on Oct. 8 at 6:53 UTC (2:53 a.m. EDT and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder instrument captured infrared data on the storm revealing bands of strong thunderstorms east of the center. Credit:
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
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NASA's Aqua satellite saw the remnants of Typhoon Hudhud still over India, Nepal, and China on Oct. 14 at 08:05 UTC (4:05 a.m. EDT).
NASA's Aqua satellite saw the remnants of Typhoon Hudhud still over India, Nepal, and China on Oct. 14 at 08:05 UTC (4:05 a.m. EDT).
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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This TRMM flyby rainfall analysis of Cyclone Hudhud from Oct. 7-14 showed heavy rainfall in many areas. Up to 550 mm (~22 inches, dark red) over ocean and over land, the highest totals are 200 to 250 mm (~8 to 12 inches, green) and 50 to 100 mm (~2 to 4 inches, blue).
Image Credit: 
NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
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Aqua image of the snow from Cyclone Hudhud
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Himalayan Mountains, the MODIS instrument captured this image of snow on the ground on Oct. 16 at 0705 UTC (3:50 a.m. EDT).
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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MODIS image of Hudhud
On Oct. 9 at 07:45 UTC (3:45 a.m. EDT), the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured this image of Tropical Cyclone Hudhud in the Bay of Bengal.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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AIRS image of Hudhud
NASA's Aqua satellite took this infrared image of Tropical Cyclone Hudhud on Oct. 9 at 3:53 p.m. EDT. Cloud top temperatures (purple) were as cold as -63F/-53C, which have the potential for dropping heavy rainfall.
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
Image Token: 
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AIRS image of Hudhud
The AIRS instrument aboard Aqua captured infrared data on the storm that showed cloud top temperatures had dropped, indicating stronger uplift and stronger thunderstorms.
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
Image Token: 
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TRMM view of Hudhud
This TRMM rainfall analysis of Cyclone Hudhud from Oct. 7-14 showed heavy rainfall in many areas. Up to 550 mm (~22 inches, dark red) over ocean and over land, the highest totals are 200 to 250 mm (~8 to 12 inches, green) and 50 to 100 mm (~2 to 4 inches, blue).
Image Credit: 
NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
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Page Last Updated: October 21st, 2014
Page Editor: Lynn Jenner