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Gabrielle (Atlantic Ocean)
September 16, 2013

[image-310]GOES Satellite Catches Three Tropical Cyclones in One Shot, Sees Gabrielle Absorbed 

There were three tropical cyclones between the north Eastern Pacific and the North Atlantic Ocean on Saturday, Sept. 14, and NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured them in one image created by NASA. Because Mexico was being hit with Tropical Storm Ingrid and Manuel, both coasts were under Tropical Storm Warnings. The National Hurricane Center cautioned that some areas in eastern and western Mexico may receive up to two feet of rainfall from each storm!

NASA's GOES Project at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center uses the data gathered by NOAA's GOES series of satellites and makes them into images and animations. On Saturday, Sept. 14 at 1145 UTC/7:45 a.m. EDT, an image was created that showed newborn Tropical Storm Manuel in the eastern Pacific, Tropical Storm Ingrid in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, the remnants of Gabrielle absorbed into a cold front over the North Atlantic, and Tropical Depression Humberto in the eastern Atlantic.

In the Eastern Pacific, Manuel grew into a tropical storm on Sept. 14. Manuel came from Tropical Depression 13E that developed on Sept. 13, along Mexico's southwestern coast. A tropical storm warning is in effect for Acapulco to Manzanillo.

At 11 a.m. EDT on Saturday, Sept. 14, the center of Tropical Storm Manuel was located near latitude 16.2 north and longitude 102.4 west, about 125 miles/200 km south of Lazaro Cardenas, Mexico. Manuel was moving toward the north near 6 mph/9 kph and was expected to turn north-northwest, meaning that Manuel should be near the coast of southwestern Mexico within the warning area by early Sunday. Maximum sustained winds had increased to near 50 mph/85 kph and a further increase in strength was possible until landfall on Sunday. Manuel was a heavy rainmaker. Manuel was expected to produce 10 to 15 inches of rain over portions of the Mexican states of Oaxaca and Guerrero, with isolated maximum amounts of 25 inches possible. The Mexican weather service received a report of about 8 inches of rain in eastern Oaxaca on Saturday, Sept. 14.

In the Gulf of Mexico, Ingrid is the big troublemaker. Ingrid continued to ride the extreme southwestern Gulf of Mexico and travel northward along Mexico's east coast. As the center stayed over open waters, Ingrid continued to gain strength and on Saturday morning, Sept. 14 and was nearing hurricane strength. As a result, a hurricane watch is in effect for north of Cabo Rojo to La Pesca, and a Tropical Storm Warning is in effect from Coatzacoalcos to Cabo Rojo.  At 11 a.m. EDT on Sept. 14, the center of Tropical Storm Ingrid was located by an Air Force reconnaissance plane near latitude 20.6 north and longitude 94.5 west, about 145 miles/235 km northeast of Veracruz, and 190 miles/305 km east of Tuxpan, Mexico. Maximum sustained winds were near 70 mph/ 110 kph, and Ingrid was forecast to become a hurricane later in the day. Ingrid was moving toward the north near 8 mph/ 13 kph. Ingrid, like Manuel was expected to be a heavy rain maker and was forecast to drop as much as two feet of rain in eastern Mexico. Ingrid was expected to produce 10 to 15 inches of rain over a large part of eastern Mexico with isolated amounts of 25 inches possible.

In the northern Atlantic, Gabrielle's remnants have merged with a cold front, and the system is no more. In GOES imagery, the remnants appear as a large area of clouds stretching from New England to eastern Canada.

In the eastern Atlantic, Humberto became a post-tropical cyclone, although the National Hurricane Center expects it to regenerate in a couple of days. At 11 a.m. EDT on Sept. 14, Humberto's maximum sustained winds were near 40 mph/65 kph. It was centered near 25.4 north and 35.4 west, about 980 miles/1,580 km northwest of the Cape Verde Islands. Maximum sustained winds were near 40 mph/ 65 kph, and Humberto is moving to the west-northwest at 13 mph/20 kph. Humberto is expected to turn to the northwest. Satellite imagery indicates no significant deep convection at this time, however, the National Hurricane Center noted that redevelopment of Humberto into a tropical depression or a tropical storm could occur by Monday, Sept. 16.

Text credit:  Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


Sept. 13, 2013 - NASA Sees Tropical Depression Gabrielle Approaching Eastern Canada  [image-294]

Eastern Canada is now expecting some winds and rain from Tropical Depression Gabrielle as it transfers its energy to a cold front. NASA's Aqua satellite captured an infrared image of Gabrielle that showed some very cold cloud top temperatures and strong thunderstorms around its center.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder instrument called AIRS that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured an infrared image of Tropical Depression Gabrielle on Sept. 13 at 06:29 UTC/2:29 a.m. EDT. The AIRS image showed a circular area of very high, cold cloud top temperatures surrounding its center. The cloud tops were as cold or colder than -63F/-52C, indicating they stretched high in the troposphere, and have the potential for dropping heavy rainfall.

On Sept. 13, the Canadian Hurricane Centre of Environment Canada issued a Tropical cyclone information statement for:  Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.

At 11 a.m. EDT/1500 UTC, Tropical Depression Gabrielle had maximum sustained winds near 35 mph/ 55 kph. It was centered near latitude 39.1 north and longitude 66.5 west, about 245 miles/390 km southeast of Nantucket, Massachusetts and 410 miles/655 km south-southwest of Halifax, Nova Scotia. Gabrielle is moving to the north-northeast near 23 mph/37 kph and expected to continue moving north-northeast while speeding up later in the day on Sept. 13.

The National Hurricane Center expects Gabrielle's circulation to dissipate as it approaches Nova Scotia and merge with a cold front later on Sept. 13. The cold front is approaching from the west and Gabrielle's moisture is already being drawn into it, so heavy rainfall was affecting Nova Scotia during the morning hours of Sept. 13 and spreading to Prince Edward Island. For more details on the forecast for eastern Canada, visit: http://weather.gc.ca/hurricane/statements_e.html.

According to the Canadian Hurricane Centre, whatever remains of Gabrielle's wind will likely clip Eastern Nova Scotia during the night-time hours on Sept. 13. 

Text credit:  Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


Sept. 12, 2013 - Satellite Sees Tropical Storm Gabrielle Battling Wind Shear, Gulf Storm Developing   [image-267]

Gabrielle is a fighter. Tropical Storm Gabrielle regained tropical storm status on Sept. 12 at 11 a.m. EDT after being knocked down to tropical depression status earlier in the day. NASA's GOES Project used NOAA's GOES-East satellite data to create an image that showed wind shear is still having a big effect on Gabrielle, and another low pressure area appears to be organizing in the Gulf of Mexico.

At 11 a.m. EDT on Sept. 12, Tropical Depression Gabrielle's center was 200 miles/325 km northwest of Bermuda, and about 530 miles/850 km south-southeast of Nantucket, Mass. near 33.9 north and 67.7 west. NOAA's GOES-East satellite showed Gabrielle's center far east of the Mid-Atlantic coast, more than 1,000 kilometers (over 600 miles) northeast of the border between North and South Carolina.[image-253]

The bulk of clouds and showers associated with Gabrielle were pushed far to the northeast of the center, because southwesterly wind shear continues to push them away. Those displaced clouds were apparent on NOAA's GOES satellite imagery.  The image was created by NASA's GOES Project at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. NASA's GOES Project also created an animation of GOES imagery from Sept. 10 through 12 that shows Gabrielle weakening from a tropical storm to a depression and strengthening back to a tropical storm again.

Tropical Depression Gabrielle's maximum sustained winds were back up to near 40 mph/65 kph after dropping below that threshold for tropical storm status earlier in the day. Gabrielle was moving to the north at 8 mph/13 kph and is expected to turn north-northeast and speed up as it is expected to transition into an extra-tropical storm over the next day.

As Gabrielle heads toward transition, another low pressure area in the Atlantic basin appears ripe for a transition in satellite imagery. The low pressure area known as System 93L, located in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico now has a high chance to become a tropical depression. System 93L is in the Bay of Campeche, located west of the Yucatan Peninsula. The Bay is in the southwestern part of the Gulf of Mexico. The low is in the same area where tropical depression 8 was born earlier this season

NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured in one image both Gabrielle and System 93L at 1431 UTC/10:31 a.m. EDT. The image showed Gabrielle's clouds northeast of center, while System 93L's thunderstorms appeared around the center of its circulation.

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted that environmental conditions appear to be favorable for development and System 93L now has a high chance of becoming a tropical cyclone during the next two days. NHC noted that System 93L is forecast to move very slowly across the southern Gulf of Mexico producing locally heavy rains over a large part of eastern Mexico during the next several days.

Text credit:  Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


NASA 3-D Image Clearly Shows Wind Shear's Effect on Tropical Storm Gabrielle  [image-234]

Data obtained from NASA's TRMM satellite was used to create a 3-D image of Tropical Storm Gabrielle's rainfall that clearly showed wind shear pushed all of the storm's the rainfall east of its center.

NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite known as "TRMM" flew directly above tropical Storm Gabrielle on September 10, 2013 at 2124 UTC (5:24 p.m. EDT) as the storm approached Bermuda. TRMM's Precipitation Radar (PR) data found that rain was falling at a rate of over 127mm/~5 inches per hour in a line of intense storms southeast of Bermuda. TRMM PR also found that the tallest thunderstorms, reaching to heights above 15.5km (~9.6 miles), were located in an area close to Gabrielle's center of circulation.[image-250]

Wind shear was affecting Gabrielle on Sept. 10 and continued to affect the storm on Sept. 11. Winds are blowing from the southwest at 15 to 20 knots and pushing the clouds and rain associated with Gabrielle to the northeast of the center. On Sept. 11, tropical storm force winds extend outward up to 115 miles/185 km, and because of wind shear, those strong winds were mostly northeast of the center.

Wind shear is basically any change in wind speed or direction along a straight line. In reference to tropical cyclones it means winds vertically from the ocean surface to top of the troposphere. Wind shear removes the heat and moisture that tropical cyclones require around their center of circulation and it will elongate the storm. When a storm elongates, basically the top is blown away from the bottom part of the storm, tilting the circulation center (think of tilting a tire at a 45 degree angle for example). Whenever the center tilts, it can't rotate as easily, and it's a less-efficient heat engine, so winds coming in at the low levels and flowing out at the upper levels get disrupted, generally causing the storm to weaken.

Although Bermuda's watches and warnings have been dropped, Gabrielle is still expected to bring between 1 and 3 inches of rainfall to the island today. Tropical-storm force winds will wane early on Sept. 11, but rough surf is expected to continue as Gabrielle pulls away.

At 8 a.m. EDT/1200 UTC, Gabrielle's maximum sustained winds were near 50 mph/85 kph and weakening is forecast during the next 48 hours. The center of Tropical Storm Gabrielle was located near latitude 32.4 north and longitude 65.7 west. At that time, Gabrielle was stationary but is expected to start moving slowly to the northwest then turn north on Sept. 12.  At 8 a.m. EDT an elevated station at Commissioners Point on Bermuda reported a wind gust of 47 mph/76 kph.

The National Hurricane Center noted that over the next two to three days, whatever is left of Gabrielle is expected to merge with a frontal system moving east.

Text credit:  Rob Gutro/Hal Pierce
SSAI/NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


Sept. 10, 2013 - Sees Tropical Storm Gabrielle Resurrected in the Atlantic, Global Hawk to Investigate  [image-188]

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the resurrected Tropical Storm Gabrielle in the Atlantic Ocean today, Sept. 10, 2013 and captured infrared data. Meanwhile, one of NASA's Global Hawk unmanned aircraft has set out to investigate the storm and gather data on the storm that reformed south of Bermuda.

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the resurrected Tropical Storm Gabrielle on Sept. 10 at 0559 UTC/1:59 a.m. EDT, hours before it regained strength as a tropical storm. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument aboard Aqua detected cloud-top temperatures of powerful thunderstorms that were colder than -63F/-52C. Cloud tops that extend that high into the troposphere indicate strong uplift in the storm, and are indicative of the potential for heavy rainfall.[image-218]

After NASA's Aqua satellite passed overhead, NASA sent out an unmanned aircraft from the Hurricane and Severe Storms Sentinel or HS3 mission. HS3 features NASA's two remotely piloted Global Hawks. During the mission, both aircraft are being flown remotely from the HS3 mission base at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Wallops Island, Va. At 9:58 a.m. EDT today, Sept. 10, NASA's Global Hawk 871 took off to begin HS3 Science Flight number 7 to fly into Tropical Storm Gabrielle.

Another satellite was used to provide a look at the redevelopment of Gabrielle. NASA's GOES Project at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. created a 27 second video animation of imagery from NOAA's GOES-East satellite from Sept. 8 to 10 that shows Tropical Storm Gabrielle's resurrection. In the GOES satellite imagery, most of the clouds and showers are northeast of the center of circulation.

At 11 a.m. EDT/1500 UTC Gabrielle had maximum sustained winds are near 40 mph/65 kph and some strengthening is forecast during the next 48 hours, according to the National Hurricane Center. Gabrielle was located near latitude 30.6 north and longitude 65.0 west, about 120 miles/190 km south of Bermuda. Gabrielle is moving toward the north near 12 mph/19 kph and is expected to continue in that direction through tonight before turning northwest and slowing down.  The National Hurricane Center noted that Gabrielle is expected to pass over or near Bermuda tonight and early Wednesday, Sept. 11.[image-204]

At 11 a.m. EDT, sustained winds in Bermuda were from the southwest at 13 mph and are expected to pick up as Gabrielle comes closer. A tropical storm warning is in effect for Bermuda.  According to the NHC, Gabrielle is expected to produce rainfall amounts of 3 to 5 inches over Bermuda with isolated maximum totals of 7 inches possible. Bermuda can expect storm surge of 2 to 3 feet above normal tide levels, and tropical-storm-force winds are expected to begin there tonight.

For more information about NASA's HS3 Hurricane Mission, visit: www.nasa.gov/HS3

Text credit:  Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

 

 


Sept. 09, 2013 - NASA Investigates Gabrielle's Remnants and New Tropical Storm Humberto [image-172]

Tropical Depression Nine formed yesterday, Sept. 8 in the far eastern Atlantic, and NASA's Aqua satellite saw it strengthen into Tropical Storm Humberto today, Sept. 9 at 5 a.m. EDT. As that storm strengthened, the remnants of the once-tropical-storm Gabrielle continued to struggle near the Bahamas as NASA's HS3 mission investigated. 

Both Tropical Humberto the remnants of Gabrielle, located on the other side of the Atlantic, were captured in an image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite today. The image, created by the NASA GOES Project at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. showed how far east Humberto is compared to Gabrielle's remnants.

NASA's Hurricane and Severe Storms Sentinel or HS3 mission gathered data over Gabrielle's remnants over the weekend of Sept. 7 and 8. NASA's Global Hawk 872, or NASA 872 departed from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Va. on Saturday, Sept. 7 at 8:07 a.m. EDT and flew over the remnants of Gabrielle as it lingered north of the Dominican Republic. NASA 872 dropped dropsondes and took various measurements of the remnants during its flight.NASA 872 ended flight upon landing back at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Va. on Sunday, Sept. 9 at 7:17 a.m. EDT. 

An elongated area of low pressure that include the remnants of tropical depression Gabrielle are still lingering in the western Atlantic. That broad area of low pressure is located about 500 miles south-southwest of Bermuda. Because of wind shear on Sept. 9, the shower and thunderstorm activity remains displaced to the east of the center as it was on Sunday, Sept. 8. Upper-level winds are not expected to be conducive for significant development while the low moves northeastward to north-northeastward during the next several days. This system has a low chance, 10 percent, of becoming a tropical cyclone during the next two days

Farther west, the National Hurricane Center noted that a low pressure area could form over the Bay of Campeche in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico in the next couple of days.

For more information about NASA's HS3 mission, please visit: www.nasa.gov/HS3.

Text credit:  Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


Sept. 06, 2013 - NASA Satellites and HS3 Mission Cover Tropical Storm Gabrielle's Demise, Watch Other Areas [image-124]

Two NASA satellites and one of NASA's Global Hawk aircraft got good looks at Gabrielle when it weakened from a tropical storm to a depression. Although Gabrielle is now a remnant low pressure area, there are a couple of other developing low pressure areas in the Atlantic Ocean basin to keep an eye on.

As part of NASA's Hurricane Severe Storms Sentinel mission known as HS3, two of NASA's Global Hawks have been investigating Gabrielle and are gathering data over its remnants. Global Hawk 871 and 872 have been gathering data on Gabrielle this week and are expected to fly over the remnants over the weekend of Sept. 7 and 8. For more information about NASA's HS3 mission, visit: www.nasa.gov/HS3.

NASA's TRMM and Terra satellites provided data and imagery on the cloud extent and rainfall occurring within the storm. NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite called TRMM measured the rainfall in Gabrielle on Aug. 5 at 0614 UTC (2:14 a.m. EDT). At that time, TRMM's Microwave imager instrument found rain falling at a rate of over 56mm/ ~2.2 inches per hour in an area southeast of Puerto Rico. Later, at 11:15 a.m. EDT the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured a visible image of Gabrielle's clouds cover as it was approaching Puerto Rico.[image-140]

By 11 p.m. EDT on Sept. 5/Sept. 6 at 0300 UTC, the National Hurricane Center noted that Gabrielle had dissipated near 19.0 north and 68.5 west, about 30 miles/45 km north-northwest of Punta Cana, Dominican Republic. All of the warnings and watches that were associated with Gabrielle had been dropped.  Despite the dissipation, Gabrielle's remnants were dropping heavy rain over both Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The remnants were moving to the north-northwest at 8 knots/9 mph/14.8 kph. 

By 11 a.m. EDT on Sept. 6, the National Hurricane Center or NHC noted that Gabrielle's remnants were now part of a complex area of disturbed weather that stretched from the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico northeastward into the Atlantic for several hundred miles. On Sept. 5, there was a trough of low pressure to Gabrielle's east, which the remnants have now joined. NHC noted that any development would be slow to occur is it moves northwest at 10 to 15 mph. Over the weekend, however, it just has a 10 percent chance to re-develop into a tropical depression, however, NHC noted that some development of this system is possible in a few days when the disturbance moves northeastward ahead of a cold front over the central Atlantic Ocean.

Gabrielle's remnants and Systems 99L and 98L were all captured in one image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite at 10:45 a.m. EDT on Sept. 6. In the image, created by NASA's GOES Project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., System 99L appeared the most organized of the three low pressure areas. The earlier TRMM and Terra satellite images of Gabrielle were also created at NASA Goddard.[image-156]

System 99L Hugging Mexico's East Coast

The low pressure area designated as System 99L continues to hug the east coast of Mexico, and now has a better chance for becoming a tropical storm, than it did 24 hours before. Located near 22.6 north and 97.0 west, the low is centered near Tampico, Mexico. NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery showed that clouds and showers had become better organized during the morning hours of Sept. 6. Although System 99L is expected to move inland before a tropical cyclone can form, the NHC noted that will be a rain-maker for the east coast of Mexico, and it is likely to bring 3 to 5 inches of rainfall, with isolated maximum amounts of up to 8 inches in the Mexican states of Veracruz and Tamaulipas during the next couple of days. System 99L has a 20 percent chance of becoming a depression in the next 48 hours.

System 98L in Eastern Atlantic

The broad low pressure system associated with a tropical wave, known as System 98L is located about 600 miles west of the Cape Verde Islands, is producing disorganized shower activity. The environment is not conducive to development, however, so the NHC gives the low a "near zero" percent chance of developing over the next couple of days. The low is moving to the west-northwest at about 10 mph.

Looking further east over Africa, there's a tropical wave that is expected to move into the Atlantic Ocean over the next two days and NHC noted that development of that system is possible late this weekend into early next week.

Text credit:  Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

 


Sept. 5, 2013 (Update #2) - Satellite Data Shows a Very Active Tropical Atlantic, Gabrielle Weakens [image-92]

Tropical Storm Gabrielle has weakened to a depression by 11 a.m. EDT on Sept. 5, while three other low pressure areas struggle to develop in the Northern Atlantic Ocean. NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured a panoramic view of all four systems while NASA's Aqua satellite captured infrared data on Gabrielle and an adjacent low.

NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured a view of Gabrielle, an unnamed system east of it, and Systems 99L and 98L on Sept. 5 at 10:45 a.m. EDT. NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured all four systems in a view across the entire Atlantic Ocean. The image was created by NASA's GOES Project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. 

At 11 a.m. EDT on Sept. 5, Tropical Depression Gabrielle's maximum sustained winds dropped to near 35 mph/55 kph, when it was centered just about 80 miles/125 km south-southeast of Punta Cana, Dominican Republic near 17.5 north and 68.1 west. Gabrielle was moving to the northwest at 9 mph/15 kph. New data from the National Hurricane Center indicates that Gabrielle is not expected to intensify and may lose tropical cyclone status in the next day or two after it moves over the Dominican Republic tonight, Sept. 5.  A tropical storm watch is in effect for the Dominican Republic from Cabo Engano to Cabo Frances Viejo.[image-108]

When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Gabrielle earlier on Sept. 5 at 1:41 a.m. EDT, it was a tropical storm. Gabrielle's cloud top temperatures were as cold as -63F/-52C at that time, and have since warmed. Warming cloud top temperatures indicate that cloud heights have dropped and there's not as much punch or uplift in the atmosphere. When Aqua passed by, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument captured an infrared image that showed thunderstorms with cold cloud tops over Puerto Rico. Those thunderstorms had the capability of dropping heavy rainfall.

NASA's HS3 Investigates Gabrielle

One of two of NASA's Global Hawks flew over Tropical Depression Seven on Sept. 4, which organized into Tropical Storm Gabrielle. The Global Hawk deployed a record 80 dropsondes during the mission. The next two Global Hawk flights are expected to occur over Tropical Storm Gabrielle over the weekend of Sept. 7 and 8. NASA 872 may fly over Gabrielle on Saturday, Sept. 7 and NASA 871 may investigate the tropical storm on Sunday, Sept. 8 if Gabrielle holds together.

Despite being downgraded, Gabrielle is still expected to produce copious amounts of rainfall. Gabrielle is expected to drop between 2 to 4 inches over Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands with isolated maximum amounts of up to 8 inches possible in areas of mountainous terrain.

A Low East of Gabrielle

Just to the east of Gabrielle is a large, elongated low pressure area (or trough) that does not yet have an investigation number assigned to it. It is centered near 21 north and 62 west and contains disorganized showers and thunderstorms. This low extends from the northeastern Leeward Islands northeastward over the Atlantic waters for several hundred miles. Because it is close to Gabrielle, development of this low is expected to be slow.  The National Hurricane Center has given this area just a 20 percent chance of development in the next two days.

System 99L

One low pressure area that does have a designation is in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. That low is also elongated (a trough) ad has associated showers and thunderstorms. However, this low, designated as System 99L is only possible before it moves inland along the coast of mainland Mexico on Friday, Sept. 6. This system has a medium chance of becoming a tropical cyclone during the next two days.  

System 98L

Far in the eastern Atlantic lies System 98L, about 450 miles west-southwest of the Cape Verde Islands near 13.8 north and 31.3 west. This system has showers and thunderstorms that are showing some signs of organization. Dry air in the region, however, is expected to limit development potential, so this low has a low chance of becoming a tropical depression in the next couple of days.

Text credit:  Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


Sept. 5, 2013 (Update #1) - NASA Satellite Animation Records Birth of Tropical Storm Gabrielle Near Puerto Rico  [image-78]

One hour before midnight Eastern Daylight Time on Sept. 4, Tropical Depression 7 strengthened into Tropical Storm Gabrielle just 70 miles south of Ponce, Puerto Rico. NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured the development and NASA's GOES Project created an animation that showed the developing storm.

Tropical Depression Seven had formed at 5 p.m. EDT on Sept. 4 and just 6 hours later it organized and strengthened into Gabrielle. Tropical Storm Gabrielle was bringing heavy rains to Puerto Rico and adjacent islands during the morning of Sept. 5. NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured an image of Gabrielle at 7:32 a.m. EDT today, Sept. 5 that showed Gabrielle over Puerto Rico. NASA's GOES Project, located at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. compiled five days of images from Sept. 1 to Sept. 5 and created a seven second animation that shows the development of Gabrielle from the beginning.[image-51]

By 8 a.m. EDT Gabrielle had maximum sustained winds near 40 mph/65 kph (mostly northwest of the center), and it was about 65 miles/105 km south-southwest of Ponce, Puerto Rico near 17.7 north and 67.4 west. It was moving to the northwest at 8 mph/13 kph and that motion is expected to continue today. Gabrielle had a minimum central pressure of 1008 millibars.

Radar images from Puerto Rico during the morning of Sept. 5 showed a well-defined mid-level center to the east of the surface location. On infrared satellite imagery, the surface center was difficult to find, but appeared to be on the western edge of the strongest convection and thunderstorms.

A Tropical Storm Warning is in effect for Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic from Cabo Engano to Cabo Frances Viejo. A Tropical Storm Watch Is In Effect for the Dominican Republic from Santo Domingo to Cabo Engano.

According to the National Hurricane Center, Gabrielle is expected to produce total rainfall amounts of 3 to 6 inches over Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands and eastern portions of the Dominican Republic with isolated maximum amounts of up to 12 inches possible in areas of mountainous terrain. Rainfall that large could cause dangerous flash floods and mudslides over mountainous terrain. 

The National Hurricane Center expects Gabrielle's center to pass near or over the southwestern portion of Puerto Rico during the morning today, and across the Mona Passage later in the day. Gabrielle should then move east of the Turks and the Caicos Islands on Friday.

Text credit:  Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

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Gabrielle in the Atlantic
NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured an image of Gabrielle at 7:32 a.m. EDT today, Sept. 5 that showed Gabrielle over Puerto Rico, at 5 a.m. EDT Gabrielle had maximum sustained winds near 40 mph.
Image Credit: 
NASA GOES Project
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This GOES-East series of animations from Sept. 1 through Sept. 5 show the development of Tropical Depression 7 into Tropical Storm Gabrielle near Puerto Rico (lower right).
Image Credit: 
NASA GOES Project
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GOES image of the Atlantic systems
NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured a view of System 99L (far left), Gabrielle, an unnamed system east of it, and System 98L (far right) on Sept. 5 at 10:45 a.m. EDT.
Image Credit: 
NASA GOES Project
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AIRS image of Gabrielle
When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Gabrielle earlier on Sept. 5 at 1:41 a.m. EDT, it was a tropical storm. Gabrielle's cloud top temperatures were as cold as -63F/-52C at that time, and have since warmed.
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL/Ed Olsen
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GOES image of Gabrielle and two other systems
Gabrielle's remnants and Systems 99L and 98L were all captured in one image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite at 10:45 a.m. EDT on Sept. 6. In the image System 99L appeared the most organized of the three low pressure areas.
Image Credit: 
NASA GOES Project
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TRMM image of Gabrielle
NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite called TRMM measured the rainfall in Gabrielle when it was a tropical storm on Aug. 5 at 0614 UTC (2:14 a.m. EDT). TRMM's Microwave imager instrument found rain falling at a rate of over 56mm/ ~2.2 inches/hour in an area southeast of Puerto Rico.
Image Credit: 
NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
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MODIS image of Gabrielle
When Gabrielle was still a tropical storm the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on Sept. 5 at 11:15 a.m. EDT as it was approaching Puerto Rico.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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GOES image of Humberto and the remnants of Gabrielle
NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured a view of Tropical Storm Humberto (far right) and the remnants of tropical storm Gabrielle near the Bahamas on Sept. 9 at 7:45 a.m. EDT.
Image Credit: 
NASA GOES Project
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AIRS image of Gabrielle
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the resurrected Tropical Storm Gabrielle on Sept. 10 at 0559 UTC/1:59 a.m. EDT and detected cloud-top temperatures of powerful thunderstorms (purple) that were colder than -63F/-52C.
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL/Ed Olsen
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This 27 second video animation of imagery from NOAA's GOES-East satellite runs from Sept. 8 to 10 and shows Tropical Storm Gabrielle's resurrection.
Image Credit: 
NASA GOES Project
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HS3 flight to Gabrielle
NASA's Global Hawk 871 departed from NASA's Wallops Island Flight Facility, Va. on Sept. 10 at 09:58 a.m. EDT for a 22-hour flight over reborn Tropical Storm Gabrielle in the Atlantic.
Image Credit: 
NASA
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TRMM image of Gabrielle
This 3-D image of Tropical Storm Gabrielle's rainfall was created by data from NASA's TRMM satellite, and clearly shows wind shear had pushed all the rainfall east of center. Credit:
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SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce
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NASA's TRMM satellite data was used to create this animation of Tropical Storm Gabrielle's rainfall and cloud heights on Sept. 10. Rain was falling at a rate of over 127mm/~5 inches per hour in parts of Gabrielle and the tallest thunderstorms, reaching to heights above 15.5km (~9.6 miles).
Image Credit: 
SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce
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This GOES-13 satellite animation from Sept. 10-12, 2013 shows Gabrielle (far right) northwest of Bermuda, while low pressure System 93L (bottom left) is developing in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico.
Image Credit: 
NASA GOES Project
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GOES image of Gabrielle
This GOES-13 satellite image shows Gabrielle northwest of Bermuda, while low pressure System 93L is developing in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico.
Image Credit: 
NASA GOES Project
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AIRS image of Tropical Depression Gabrielle
NASA's Aqua satellite captured an infrared image of Tropical Depression Gabrielle on Sept. 13 at 2:29 a.m. EDT that showed a circular area of very high, cold cloud top temperatures colder than -63F/-52C surrounding its center.
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL/Ed Olsen
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GOES image of tropical storms across the world
On Saturday, Sept. 14, NOAA's GOES-East saw newborn Tropical Storm Manuel in the eastern Pacific, Tropical Storm Ingrid in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, the remnants of Gabrielle absorbed into a cold front over the North Atlantic, and Tropical Depression Humberto in the eastern Atlantic.
Image Credit: 
NASA GOES Project
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Page Last Updated: September 16th, 2013
Page Editor: Lynn Jenner