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Francisco (Northwestern Pacific Ocean)
October 25, 2013

NASA Sees Tropical Storm Francisco Becoming Extra-tropical [image-260]

Cold air, mid-latitude westerly winds  and wind shear are taking a toll on Tropical Storm Francisco and transitioning the storm into a cold core low pressure area. NASA's Terra satellite captured an image of Francisco as it spread a blanket of clouds and showers over Japan on Oct. 25.

The MODIS instrument or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer captured an image of Tropical Storm Francisco spreading clouds over the big island of Japan on Oct. 25 at 01:45 UTC. The image shows a large area of clouds from Francisco's northern quadrant streaming over the entire big island and into the South China Sea. In the image, the western side of Typhoon Lekima was visible. Lekima is located east of Francisco.

On Oct. 25 at 1500 UTC/11 a.m. EDT, Tropical Storm Francisco had maximum sustained winds near 45 knots/51.7 mph/83.3 kph. Francisco was centered near 30.4 north and 136.1 east, about 416 nautical miles southwest of Yokosuka, Japan. Francisco was moving to the east-northeast at 17 knots/19.5 mph/31.4 kph.

Francisco is now embedded in the mid-latitude westerlies [winds] and is being pushed to the northeast. Satellite imagery shows that the most convection is occurring over the northwest and that cold air has been affecting the system with the presence of stratocumulus clouds in that quadrant.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center is expecting Francisco to continue transitioning to an extra-tropical storm and cold-core low pressure area, while moving in a northeasterly direction over the next couple of days. Francisco's center is expected to remain east of the big Island of Japan.

Text credit:  Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


Oct. 24, 2013 - NASA Sees Rainfall in Tropical Storm Francisco [image-230][image-246]

NASA's TRMM satellite flew above the center of Tropical Storm Francisco in the western North Pacific Ocean early on Oct. 24 and data was used to create a 3-D image of the storm's structure.

Tropical Storm Francisco came into the view of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission or TRMM satellite at 0919 UTC/5:19 a.m. EDT. Francisco is somewhat close to Super-typhoon Lekima, also in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. Lekima was located southeast of Tropical Storm Francisco over the open waters of the Pacific.

At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. the data TRMM gathered was used to create imagery of the storm. Precipitation data from TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) instruments were overlaid on infrared images from TRMM's Visible and InfraRed Scanner (VIRS). 

TRMM data showed a difference between Lekima and Francisco. TRMM's PR data revealed that Lekima had a small well defined eye at the center of the super typhoon with another concentric outer replacement eye wall. Rain was falling at a rate of over 130mm/~5.2 inches per hour in the powerful storms in Lekima's outer eye wall. Francisco was also a super typhoon on Oct. 20, 2013 but had greatly weakened by the time of the latest TRMM pass. Francisco now had a very large area in the center of the storm that was rain free. Lekima was the fourth super typhoon in the western Pacific this year with wind speeds estimated to be over 130 knots/~150 mph.

Radar reflectivity data from TRMM's PR instrument were used to create 3-D images that showed differences between super typhoon Lekima and tropical storm Francisco.  TRMM is managed by both NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

On Oct. 24 at 1500 UTC/11 a.m. EDT, Francisco's maximum sustained winds were near 60 knots/69 mph/111 kph. Francisco was centered near 26.9 north and 130.8 east, about 134 nautical miles east of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan. Francisco was moving to the northeast at 7 knots/8 mph/12.9 kph and away from the island.

Francisco is being pushed to the northeast by mid-latitude westerly winds, which are also affect Super-typhoon Lekima behind it. The tropical storm appears elongated on satellite imagery today showing the effect that the westerlies are having on it. Francisco is expected to continue on a northeast track paralleling eastern Japan, but staying out to sea.

Text credit:  Hal Pierce/Rob Gutro
SSAI/ NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


Oct. 23, 2013 - NASA Sees Heavy Rain in Typhoon Francisco, Now Affecting Southern Japanese Islands [image-184] [image-200][image-216]

On Oct. 22, 2013 Typhoon Francisco was already affecting the southern islands Japan when the TRMM satellite had a good view of its rainfall and cloud heights. 

On Oct. 23, as Typhoon Francisco moved closer to Japan's southern islands, the Daito islands and islands of Okinawa (including Kadena Air Base) and Amami-Oshima were all receiving rainfall, gusty winds and strong surf. Those islands are under warnings and facing high waves, gale-force winds, storm surge and heavy rainfall.

On Oct. 22 at 0933 UTC/5:33 a.m. EDT NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission or TRMM satellite passed over Francisco. At that time Francisco was weakening and had estimated winds of less than 75 knots/~86 mph. An analysis derived from TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) instruments was overlaid on an enhanced infrared image from TRMM's Visible and InfraRed Scanner (VIRS). That analysis showed that the most intense rain was falling at a rate of over 75mm/~3 inches per hour in a location well to the southwest of Francisco's center of circulation.

Data from TRMM's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument was used to create a 3-D view (from the northwest) of typhoon Francisco's vertical structure. The tallest thunderstorm towers, reaching to heights of about 12km/~7.4 miles, were measured by TRMM PR in a band of storms also at a great distance from the center of the typhoon.

On Oct. 23 at 0900 UTC/5 a.m. EDT, Typhoon Francisco had maximum sustained winds near 70 knots/80.5 mph/129.6 kph. It was centered near 24.6 north latitude and 130.4 east longitude, about 197 nautical miles/226.7 miles/264.8 km southeast of Kadena Air Base. Francisco was moving to the west-northwest, and is expected to turn to the northeast in the next day.

Typhoon Francisco is predicted to continue weakening and start moving toward the northwest. Francisco is then predicted to pass to the southeast of Japan's main island of Honshu as a strong tropical storm.

Text credit:  Hal Pierce
SSAI/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Oct. 22, 2013 - NASA's Aqua Satellite Sees Typhoon Francisco Approaching Japan [image-170]

Typhoon Francisco was already spreading fringe clouds over southern Japan when NASA's Aqua satellite flew overhead and captured a picture of the storm from space.

On Oct. 22 at 04:30 UTC/12:30 a.m. EDT, NASA's Aqua satellite captured a stunning visible image of Typhoon Francisco approaching Japan that showed a large storm with a tightly wound center and small eye. Bands of thunderstorms wrapped into the center from the northern and southern quadrants of the storm as Francisco moved toward Japan. The image was created by the NASA MODIS Rapid Response Team at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

On Oct. 22 at 1500 UTC/11 a.m. EDT, Typhoon Francisco had maximum sustained winds near 75 knots/86.1 mph/138.9 kph. It was centered about 350 nautical miles east-southeast of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan, near 23.2 north and 133.1 east. The strongest winds, typhoon-force extend 40 nautical miles/46 miles/74 km from the center, or 80 nautical miles/92 miles/148 km in diameter. Tropical-storm-force winds extend as far as 130 nautical miles/149.6 miles/ 240.8 km from the center, making the storm over 260 miles in diameter.

Francisco was moving to the northwest at 7 knots/8 mph/12.9 kph, but is expected to turn to the northeast in the next day or two. As Francisco heads toward Japan, the storm is stirring up very rough seas with wave heights topping 30 feet, according to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. On Oct. 22, Japan's southern islands were all under advisory status for high waves and/or gale force winds.

Francisco continues to slowly weaken and is expected to become extra-tropical after passing southern Japan in the next couple of days.

Text credit:  Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


NASA Satellites Investigate Typhoon Francisco Heading for Japan [image-108][image-124][image-154]

Several of NASA's fleet of Earth-observing satellites have been gathering data on Typhoon Francisco as it moves toward Japan. NASA's Aqua, Terra and TRMM satellites captured infrared, visible and rainfall data on the super typhoon.

As Japan still recovers from Typhoon Wipha, the country is now expecting Francisco to make a brief landfall near Tokyo and parallel the country's east coast.

On Oct. 19 and 20 as Francisco strengthened NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites passed overhead and captured data on its structure and extent. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard both Terra and Aqua captured visible and infrared data of the storm. The MODIS image on Oct. 19 at 0355 UTC and Oct. 20 at 0130 UTC clearly showed Francisco maintained strength as an eye was visible over the two days.

NASA and the Japan Space Agency's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite called TRMM satellite flew above the western Pacific Ocean and caught a good view of Francisco when it was a super-typhoon on Oct. 20, 2013 at 0947 UTC/5:47 a.m. EDT. According to Hal Pierce of the TRMM team at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., a precipitation analysis from TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) instruments found that rain was falling at the extreme rate of over 207 mm/~8.1 inches per hour in an area of violent storms southwest of Francisco's eye. Hal created images and animations of TRMM data of Super Typhoon Francisco. TRMM's Precipitation Radar (PR) discovered radar reflectivity values of over 53dBZ in heavy precipitation south of Francisco's center.

On Oct. 21 at 1500 UTC/11 a.m. EDT, Francisco weakened back to typhoon status with maximum sustained winds near 90 knots/103.6 mph/166.7 kph. It was located near 21.3 north latitude and 135.3 east longitude, about 540 nautical miles/621.4 miles/1,000 km southeast of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan. Francisco is forecast to continue moving north-northwestward at 7 knots/8.0 mph/12.9 kph and then turn to the northeast upon approach to Kadena Air Base. 

Francisco is generating very rough seas, according to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center or JTWC. Francisco is kicking up wave heights of 43 feet/13.1 meters in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean as it nears Kadena Air Base and Amami Oshima. Both of those islands are expected to feel gusty winds and rain on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, Oct. 22, 23 and 24 (local time). Tropical-storm-force winds are most likely on those islands on Oct. 24 (local time) when Francisco is closest to them.

The JTWC predicts that Typhoon Francisco will weaken to a category one typhoon as it nears southern Japan on Oct. 24.

Text credit:  Rob Gutro/Hal Pierce
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


October 18, 2013 - NASA's TRMM Satellite Monitors Typhoon Francisco [image-78][image-110]

Typhoon Francisco passed west of Guam on Oct. 18 as NASA and the Japan Space Agency's TRMM satellite passed overhead and measured its heavy rainfall. Francisco is forecast to intensify into a super typhoon.

Francisco developed in the Western Pacific Ocean on October 16, 2013. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite called TRMM passed over on October 18, 2013 at 1002 UTC/6:02 a.m. EDT when Typhoon Francisco was located west-northwest of Guam.

At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. a rainfall analysis that used data from TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) instruments was overlaid on an enhanced infrared image from TRMM's Visible and InfraRed Scanner (VIRS). The image showed rain was falling at a rate of over 113 mm/~4.5 inches per hour in powerful storms within Francisco's distinct eye wall.

On Oct. 18 at 1500 UTC/ 11 a.m. EDT, Francisco's maximum sustained winds had increased to 125 knots/ 143.8 mph/231.5 kph, and they are expected to increase over the next two days. Francisco was located near 15.5 north and 141.5 east, about 201 nautical miles/231.3 miles/372.3 km west-northwest of Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. Francisco continues to move away from Guam in a northwesterly direction at 10 knots/ 11.5 mph/18.5 kph. Satellite imagery indicated that the eye is about 10 nautical miles/11.5 miles/18.5 km wide. 

Francisco is expected to become a super-typhoon over the next two days. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center classifies a "super-typhoon" when typhoons that reach maximum sustained 1-minute surface winds of at least 130 knots/150 mph. This is the equivalent of a strong Saffir-Simpson category 4 or category 5 hurricane in the Atlantic basin or a category 5 severe tropical cyclone in the Australian basin.

Francisco is expected to continue moving to the northwest toward the big island of Japan. Forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center expect Francisco to approach Japan by Oct. 23.

Text credit:  Hal Pierce/Rob Gutro
SSAI / NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


October 17, 2013 - NASA Sees Typhoon Francisco Headed to the Other Side of Guam  [image-51]

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Typhoon Francisco on Oct. 17 after it had passed the eastern side of Guam and started to head on a track that would take it past the western side of Guam. Tropical Storm Warnings are in effect for Guam on Oct. 17 and 18 (local time).

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured an image of Typhoon Francisco on Oct. 17 at 04:05 UTC in the Pacific Ocean as it started turning to the northwest after passing the eastern side Guam. The MODIS image clearly showed Francisco's eye, indicating its strength and organization.

On Oct. 17 at 1500 UTC/11 a.m. EDT Francisco had maximum sustained winds near 85 knots and was moving to the north-northeast, but is expected to take a turn to the northwest. Francisco's center was located about 147 nautical miles southwest of Guam, near 12.5 north and 143.1 east.

On Oct. 17 and 18 (local time), a Tropical Storm Warning was in effect for Guam.  The National Weather Service bulletin on Oct. 17 at 3 p.m. EDT noted: as Typhoon Francisco (26w) passes...sustained tropical storm force winds are expected. Maximum winds are still forecast to be in the 30 to 40 mph range with gusts to 60 mph. Minor damage may occur to poorly constructed homes.  Isolated power outages will be possible. Choppy seas of 12 to 14 feet will persist through tonight.

Text credit:  Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

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Typhoon Francisco
NASA's Aqua satellite captured this image of Typhoon Francisco on Oct. 17 at 04:05 UTC in the Pacific Ocean as it started turning to the northwest after passing Guam.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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[image-51]
TRMM image of Francisco
A simulated 3-D cutaway view of super typhoon Francisco on Oct. 18 using data from TRMM's Precipitation Radar instrument.
Image Credit: 
SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce
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[image-78]
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This is a simulated 3-D flyby animation over Super-Typhoon Francisco on Oct. 18 using TRMM Satellite Precipitation Radar data.
Image Credit: 
SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce
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[image-110]
Typhoon Francisco
The MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured this image of Typhoon Francisco in the Pacific Ocean that clearly showed its eye on Oct. 19 at 0355 UTC.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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[image-108]
Typhoon Francisco
The MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Super Typhoon Francisco in the Pacific Ocean that clearly showed its eye on Oct. 20 at 0130 UTC.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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[image-124]
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This is a simulated 3-D flyby animation over Super Typhoon Francisco using TRMM satellite data on Oct. 20, 2013 at 5:47 a.m. EDT.
Image Credit: 
SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce
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[image-154]
Typhoon Francisco
On Oct. 22 at 04:30 UTC/12:30 a.m. EDT, NASA's Aqua satellite captured this stunning visible image of Typhoon Francisco approaching Japan (top left corner in the Pacific Ocean.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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[image-170]
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TRMM image of Francisco
NASA's TRMM satellite flew over Typhoon Francisco on Oct. 22. Heaviest rainfall was occurring at 3 inches per hour (red).
Image Credit: 
SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce
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[image-184]
MODIS image of Francisco
The MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Typhoon Francisco affecting the islands of southern Japan at 0200 UTC on Oct. 23, 2013.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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[image-200]
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lLMoFaGrlEg
This is a simulated flyby of NASA's TRMM satellite over Typhoon Francisco on Oct. 22. Heaviest rainfall was occurring at 3 inches per hour (red).
Image Credit: 
SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce
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TRMM image of Francisco
This 3-D image of Tropical Storm Francisco on Oct. 24, 2013 shows the heaviest rainfall rates and highest clouds in red.
Image Credit: 
NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
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[image-230]
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This is a TRMM 3-D flyby animation over tropical storm Francisco on Oct. 24 that shows cloud heights and rainfall.
Image Credit: 
NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
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[image-246]
MODIS image of Francisco
The MODIS instrument captured this image of Tropical Storm Francisco spreading clouds over the big island of Japan on Oct. 25 at 01:45 UTC. Typhoon Lekima is seen to the right.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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[image-260]
Page Last Updated: October 25th, 2013
Page Editor: Lynn Jenner