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Madi (06B/92B Northern Indian Ocean)
December 12, 2013

NASA Satellite Sees Tropical Cyclone Madi Make Landfall in Southeastern India [image-158]

As Tropical Cyclone Madi began its landfall in southeastern Tamil Nadu, India NASA's Aqua satellite passed overhead and captured an image of the weakening storm. Several factors are responsible for Madi's quick weakening.

The MODIS or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument aboard Aqua captured a visible image of Madi on Dec. 12 at 05:05 UTC/12:05 a.m. EST that showed the strongest thunderstorms were wrapped around the center of circulation. This strongest thunderstorms have weakened since Aqua passed overhead and Madi was devoid of any strong convection by 1500 UTC/10 a.m. EST. There was also a band of thunderstorms wrapping into the northern quadrant from the east. The southern extent of the tropical cyclone's clouds were over extreme northern Sri Lanka.

Madi continued to weaken from a combination of dry air moving into the system, increased wind shear and interaction with land.

The final advisory on the tropical cyclone was issued by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center on December 12 at 0300 UTC/December 11 at 10 p.m. EST. At that time, Madi's maximum sustained winds had decreased to 35 knots/40.2 mph/64.8 kph and were weakening. At that time, Madi's center was about 115 nautical miles/ 132.3 miles/213 km east-southeast of Chennai, India, near 12.2 north and 82.0 east. It was moving to the southwest at 10 knots/11.5 mph/18.5 kph.

Madi's remnants are expected to continue on a southwestern track over extreme southern India and dissipate over land.

Text credit:  Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


Dec. 11, 2013 - NASA's TRMM Satellite Sees Powerful Storms In Tropical Cyclone Madi [image-126][image-142]

NASA's TRMM satellite spotted heavy rainfall and very high cloud tops in strong thunderstorms in the southern quadrant of Tropical Cyclone Madi on December 11 as it neared southeastern India's coast.

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission or TRMM satellite flew over the Bay of Bengal and Tropical Cyclone Madi on December 11, 2013 at 1034 UTC/5:34 a.m. EST. TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) instruments found that Madi contained powerful storms southeast of the center of circulation where rain was falling at a rate of over 81 mm/~3.2 inches per hour. An analysis of Madi's 3-D vertical structure using TRMM PR found that tops of these convective towers were reaching extremely high altitudes greater than 19km/~11.8 miles.

Since the time of the TRMM orbit over Tropical Cyclone Madi, the storm's maximum sustained winds dropped to 40 knots/46.0 mph/74.0 kph. Madi is expected to weaken to depression status later on December 11.  It was centered near 13.1 north and 82.7 eat, about 165 nautical miles/189.9 miles/305.6 km east of Chennai, India. Madi is moving to the southwest at 7 knots/8.0 mph/12.9 kph.

According to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center or JTWC, the overall structure of Madi's core appears to be losing its symmetry, becoming mildly elongated from east to west.  The latest JWTC bulletin notes that given Madi's poor vertical alignment (the upper and lower level circulations are not stacked on top of each other), cooler sea surface temperatures,  and the dry air that is moving into the western and southern edges of the storm, Madi is expected to keep weakening through the time of landfall.

India's Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre noted that rainfall is expected in isolated places over coastal Andhra Pradesh, coastal Tamil Nadu and Puducherry from December 11 at 10 a.m. EST/9 p.m. Asia/Kolkata local time to December 11 at 10 p.m. EST/9 a.m. Asia/Kolkata local time. Rainfall would occur at many places over Tamil Nadu & Puducherry with isolated heavy falls over coastal Tamil Nadu for the next two days.  Landfall is expected on December 12 in southeastern Tamil Nadu.

Text credit:  Hal Pierce/Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

 

 


Dec. 10, 2013 - NASA Sees Tropical Cyclone Madi Nearing India's East Coast [image-110]

Tropical Cyclone Madi has maintained its tropical storm-force strength over 24 hours as it neared the coast of east central India on December 10. NASA's Aqua satellite flew overhead and provided a clear picture of the storm's proximity to the coast.

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the western North Indian Ocean on December 10 at 07:45 UTC/2:45 a.m. EST. As it flew overhead from its orbit in space, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument captured a visible image of the storm. The MODIS image showed an elongated system with no visible eye. The clouds of the storm's northwestern quadrant were skirting the coast. The lowest cloud top temperatures were about -75C.

At 1500 UTC/10 a.m. EST, Tropical cyclone Madi was centered near 15.1 north latitude and 84.9 west longitude, about 295 nautical miles/339.5 miles/ 546.3 km east-northeast of Chennai, India. Madi's maximum sustained winds were near 60 knots/69 mph/111.1 kph. Tropical storm-force winds extend 90 nautical miles/103.6 miles/ 166.7 km from the center, so it is a small tropical storm. Madi was moving to the southwest at 5 knots/5.7 mph/9.2 kph and continued to move to shore. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center noted that Madi was generating 25 foot/7.6 meter-high seas and generating rough surf along the east central India coastline.

Satellite imagery shows that wind shear is now affecting the low-level circulation center of the storm. That wind shear is acting to separate the upper and lower levels of the circulation center which will weaken the storm. In order for the storm to maintain strength the different levels of circulation need to be stacked on top of each other. In addition to the wind shear, cold, dry air is wrapping into the system, weakening it further. 

Madi is now moving on a southwesterly course as a result of a low-to-mid-level subtropical ridge (elongated area) of high pressure that has been building up over India. The storm will make landfall along the southeastern coast of the state of Tamil Nadu sometime on December 12.

Text credit:  Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


Dec. 09, 2013 - NASA Eyes Tropical Cyclone Madi's Rainfall [image-94]

Tropical Cyclone Madi is headed for a landfall in southeastern India, and NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's TRMM satellite found that rainfall was heaviest north of the storm's center.

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite known as TRMM captured data on Tropical Cyclone Madi's rainfall on Dec. 8 at 1144 UTC/6:44 a.m. EST. TRMM saw the bulk of the storm's rainfall was occurring north of the center of circulation and falling at a rate of 1 inch/30 mm per hour with isolated areas of 2 inches/50 mm.

On December 9 at 1500 UTC/10 a.m. EST, Tropical Cyclone Madi's winds had weakened to near 60 knots/69 mph/111.1 kph. Madi had dropped from typhoon to tropical storm strength today, December 9. It was centered near 14.6 north latitude and 84.8 west longitude in the Northern Indian Ocean. Madi's center was about 280 nautical miles/322.2 miles/ 518.6 km east-northeast of Chennai, India, and the storm was still moving erratically, now to the north-northeast at 3 knots/3.4 mph/5.5 kph.

Forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center or JTWC now expect Madi to turn to the southwest and make landfall in southern India in Tamil Nadir on December 12. JTWC noted that Madi appears to have peaked in intensity and is forecast to weaken slowly through the period due to persistent vertical wind shear, dry air moving into the system and possible cooler sea surface temperatures associated with upwelling (water being drawn up from the bottom of the ocean as a result of being stirred by a tropical cyclone- which in this case is Madi itself, because it is moving so slowly).

The current track for the center of the cyclone brings it between the coastal city of Puducherry and the town of Mannarguddi, both along the southeastern coast.

Forecasters will be closely watching Madi as it moves across India as some forecast computer models suggest that its remnants could re-emerge into the Arabian Sea.

Text credit:  Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


Dec. 06, 2013 - NASA Satellite Catches Birth of Tropical Cyclone 06B [image-78]

NASA's Aqua satellite provided visible and infrared satellite imagery to forecasters helping confirm the birth of the sixth tropical cyclone of the Northern Indian Ocean cyclone season.

Tropical Cyclone 06B, which may be renamed "Madi," organized from low pressure System 92B today, December 6, when it was about 266 nautical miles/306 miles/492.6 km southeast of Chennai, India. Tropical Cyclone 06B was centered near 9.8 north latitude and 93.7 west longitude. Its maximum sustained winds were near 45 knots/51.7 mph/83.3 kph, making it tropical-storm strength. Those tropical storm force winds extended out 50 nautical miles/57.5 miles/92.6 km from the center, making the small tropical storm just about 100 nautical miles/115.1 miles/185.2 km in diameter. 06B was moving to the northwest at 3 knots/3.4 mph/5.5 kph.

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the tropical cyclone on December 5 at 20:17 UTC/3:17 p.m. EST. Strong rising air (convection) was building over the low-level circulation center and continued on December 6. AIRS data showed high, strong, cold thunderstorm cloud top temperatures as cold as -62F/-52C over a large area around the center and in a band wrapping into the center from the south.

The forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center or JTWC expect 06B to continue strengthening over the next couple of days because it is located in warm waters.

06B is expected to drift northward because there are no weather systems to guide it until a low to mid-level subtropical ridge (elongated area) of high pressure builds up over the eastern Bay of Bengal. Once that happens, the tropical cyclone is expected to curve to the north-northeast.

JTWC forecasters also expect that 06B will briefly reach cyclone/hurricane strength sometime on December 9 as it parallels the coast of east-central India while remaining far off-shore.

Text credit:  Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


Dec. 05, 2013 - NASA Eyes Another Developing Depression in Northern Indian Ocean [image-51]

The Northern Indian Ocean typhoon season usually lasts until the end of December, but it's not going out without a fight this year. Infrared satellite data from NASA's Aqua satellite showed bands of thunderstorms wrapping around low pressure System 92B's center. If this system develops it would become Tropical Depression 06B.

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the low pressure area designated as System 92B on Dec. 5 at 07:59 UTC/2:59 a.m. EST and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument captured infrared data about the developing storm. AIRS data showed a large area of strong convection and high, cold thunderstorm cloud tops north and east of the center of circulation.

At the time of the AIRS image, the western-most edge of the low covered most of the island nation of Sri Lanka where it brought rain. AIRS data showed bands of thunderstorms also wrapping into the center from the west and south. The circulation appears to be consolidating today, December 5.

At 1500 UTC/10 a.m. EDT on December 5, System 92B as centered near 9.8 north and 84. 0 east, about 293 nautical miles southeast of Chennai, India. Winds in the area were estimated to be 25 to 30 knots/28.7 to 34.5 mph/46.3 to 55.5 kph. Satellite data indicated that the strongest winds were in the northern half of the low. The low pressure area is moving north-northeastward at 6 knots/6.9 mph/11.1 kph.

The low-level center of the system lies to the south of a subtropical ridge (elongated area) of high pressure, which is providing good outflow, but is also causing vertical wind shear, which is inhibiting the development.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects this low pressure area to become a tropical depression and curve away from India. It is expected to move in a northeasterly direction toward the center of the Bay of Bengal.

Text credit:  Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

Image Token: 
[image-36]
AIRS image of 92B
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over System 92B on Dec. 5 at 2:59 a.m. EST. Aqua's AIRS instrument data showed a large area of strong convection and high, cold (purple) thunderstorm cloud tops north and east of the center.
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
Image Token: 
[image-51]
AIRS image of 06B
Aqua satellite passed over the tropical cyclone on December 5 at 20:17 UTC/3:17 p.m. EST. Strong rising air and thunderstorms (purple) were building over the low-level circulation center and in a band of thunderstorms wrapping to the southwest.
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
Image Token: 
[image-78]
TRMM Image of Madi
NASA's TRMM satellite captured data on Tropical Cyclone Madi's rainfall on Dec. 8 at 1144 UTC. The bulk of the rainfall was north of the center, and falling at a rate of 1 inch/30 mm per hour (green) with isolated areas of 2 inches/50 mm (red).
Image Credit: 
NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
Image Token: 
[image-94]
MODIS image of Madi
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Tropical Cyclone Madi in the western North Indian Ocean on December 10 at 07:45 UTC/2:45 a.m. EST.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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[image-110]
TRMM image of Madi
TRMM satellite flew over tropical cyclone Madi in the Bay Of Bengal on December 11, 2013 at 1034 UTC and saw storms southeast of MADI's center of circulation dropping rain at the rate of over 81 mm/~3.2 inches per hour (red).
Image Credit: 
SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce
Image Token: 
[image-126]
TRMM 3-D image of Madi
TRMM satellite flew over tropical cyclone Madi in the Bay of Bengal on December 11, 2013 at 1034 UTC and found some cloud tops of strong storms were reaching extremely high altitudes greater than 19km/~11.8 miles.
Image Credit: 
SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce
Image Token: 
[image-142]
MODIS image of Madi
NASA's Aqua satellite captured this visible image of Tropical Cyclone Madi as it began making landfall along the southeastern coast of India on Dec. 12 at 05:05 UTC/12:05 a.m. EST.
Image Credit: 
NRL/NASA
Image Token: 
[image-158]
Page Last Updated: December 12th, 2013
Page Editor: Lynn Jenner