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Manuel (was 13E) (Eastern Pacific)
September 23, 2013

NASA's TRMM Satellite Maps Heavy Rains from Hurricanes Manuel and Ingrid [image-36]

 


[image-204][image-220][image-236]NASA Sees Remnants of Hurricane Manuel Soaking Northern Mexico, Texas

Two NASA satellites observed Hurricane Manuel as it made landfall in northwestern Mexico and brought rainfall into southwestern Texas. NASA's TRMM Satellite measured Hurricane Manuel's rainfall from space and found areas where it was falling as fast as 2 inches per hour. NASA's Aqua satellite captured both visible and  infrared images that revealed strong thunderstorms associated with Manuel's remnants were streaming northeast into Texas. Those rains are expected to continue to soaking central Texas through Sept. 21.

As predicted by the National Hurricane Center (NHC), tropical storm Manuel became a category one hurricane on Sept. 18. Manuel was an intensifying tropical storm that was located over the southern Gulf Of California with maximum wind speeds of about 50 knots/ 57.5 mph when the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite called TRMM passed overhead on Sept. 18, 2013 at 1845 UTC/2:45 p.m. EDT. Manuel had intensified and was a minimal hurricane, hugging Mexico's coast, with wind speeds of about 65 knots/75.8 mph when seen again by TRMM on Sept. 19 at 0116 UTC/Sept. 18 at 9:16 p.m. EDT.

At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. TRMM data was used to create a rainfall analyses.  TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) data were overlaid on visible/infrared satellite images of Manuel from TRMM's Visible and InfraRed Scanner (VIRS). TRMM's TMI instrument provided the best coverage of Manuel during both orbits and found several areas of rain falling at a rate of over 50mm/2 inches per hour.

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Manuel on Sept. 19 at 20:15 UTC/4:15 p.m. EDT and the MODIS instrument aboard captured a visible image of the storm, while the AIRS instrument viewed it in infrared light.

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument's visible image of Manuel, clearly showed the center over northwestern Mexico, and associated clouds streaming into southwestern Texas. Meanwhile, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument measured the cloud tops of those thunderstorms and found them to be as cold as -63F/-52C. Cloud tops in thunderstorms that cold have the potential to drop heavy rain. Warmer cloud top temperatures were seen in the stream of moisture moving into southwestern Texas, indicating cloud tops were not as high, and the uplift was not as strong.

Manuel's extreme rainfall, with flooding and mudslides, caused extensive destruction in places such Acapulco near Mexico's Pacific coastline.

On Friday, Sept. 23, 2013 at 4:23 a.m. EDT, the National Weather Service (NWS) in Austin/San Antonio, Texas issued a Flood Watch for south central Texas and the Hill country as a result of Manuel's remnants streaming through. The NWS noted that heavy rainfall was expected from Sept. 20 through Sept. 21 across south central Texas and the hill country. Manuel's remnants were providing a steady supply of tropical pacific moisture that are combining with deepening gulf moisture and an approaching cold front. Those factors are expected to bring widespread showers and thunderstorms to south central Texas on Sept. 20 and 21, according to NWS. Rainfall amounts of 2 to 4 inches are expected with isolated 6 inch amounts possible.

Text credit:  Rob Gutro/Hal Pierce
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

 


Sept. 19, 2013 - NASA Sees Heavy Rains and Hot Towers in Hurricane Manuel [image-172] [image-188]

NASA's TRMM satellite passed over Manuel on Sept. 19 at 0116 UTC and measured its rainfall as it was strengthening into a hurricane. TRMM noticed heavy rainfall and some hot towering thunderstorms, which were indications that the storm was intensifying. NASA's Aqua satellite captured an infrared image that showed Manuel was making landfall during the morning of Sept. 19, and at 11 a.m. EDT, Hurricane Manuel officially made landfall near Culican, Mexico.

A Hurricane Warning is in effect for La Cruz to Topolobampo and a Tropical Storm Watch is in effect from north of Topolobampo to Huatabampito.

When NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite known as TRMM flew over Tropical Storm Manuel on Sept. 19 at 0116 UTC/9:16 p.m. EDT on Sept. 18, it observed areas of heavy rainfall around the storm's center and in a band of thunderstorms north of the center. TRMM also observed hot towers, or towering thunderstorms that were over 16 km/9.9 miles high.

A "hot tower" is a tall cumulonimbus cloud that reaches at least to the top of the troposphere, the lowest layer of the atmosphere. It extends approximately 9 miles/14.5 km high in the tropics. The hot towers in Manuel were over 9.9 miles/16 km high. These towers are called "hot" because they rise to such altitude due to the large amount of latent heat. Water vapor releases this latent heat as it condenses into liquid. NASA research shows that a tropical cyclone with a hot tower in its eyewall was twice as likely to intensify within six or more hours, than a cyclone that lacked a hot tower. When TRMM passed over Manuel and captured the hot towers, it was just about one hour after the National Hurricane Center classified the storm as a hurricane.

The heavy rain observed by TRMM was an indication of the rainfall that Manuel is expected to bring to northwestern Mexico. According to the National Hurricane Center (NHC), Manuel is expected to produce 8 to 12 inches of rain over the Mexican state of Sinaloa with isolated maximum amounts of 20 inches possible. An additional 1 to 2 inches of rain is also possible over the southern portion of the Baja California peninsula and the state of Nayarit.

Storm surge with water levels as much as 2 to 4 feet above normal tide levels are possible along the coast near and to the south of where the center makes landfall, NHC noted. The surge will be accompanied by large and destructive waves.  NHC noted that tropical storm conditions are possible in the northern portion of Sinaloa and extreme southern Sonora within the tropical storm watch area.

On Sept. 19 at 5:11 a.m. EDT, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder called AIRS that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured  an infrared image of Hurricane Manuel's very cold  cloud tops and powerful thunderstorms as it was making landfall. Some cloud top temperatures exceeded -63F/-52C indicating they were high in the troposphere and had the potential to drop heavy rainfall.

At 11 a.m. EDT on Sept. 19, Manuel's maximum sustained winds were near 75 mph/120 kph when its center came ashore in Culiacan, Mexico. It was near 25.0 north and 107.8 west. Manuel is moving north near 3 mph/ 6 kph and is expected to turn to the north-northeast is expected later today. The NHC expects Manuel to weaken to a tropical depression late tonight or early Friday, Sept. 20, finally dissipating over the mountains of Mexico late on Sept. 20.  

Text credit:  Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


Sept. 18, 2013 - NASA Sees Tropical Storm Manuel Continue to Soak Western Mexico[image-126][image-142]

Infrared imagery from NASA's Aqua and TRMM satellites on Sept. 18, 2013 showed that Tropical Depression Manuel was still generating powerful, high thunderstorms with heavy rainfall over Mexico's west coast. Manuel has already caused heavy rains, mudslides, road closures and a couple of deaths in western Mexico.

NASA and the Japan Space Agency Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite known as TRMM captured  rainfall data from TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR). That data was overlaid on an enhanced infrared image from the satellite's Visible and InfraRed Scanner (VIRS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. The image showed rain falling at a rate of almost 125mm/~4.9 inches per hour in band of powerful thunderstorms located just south of Manuel's center of circulation. TRMM data was also used to create a 3-D image of the storm. A 3-D look at Manuel's structure using TRMM PR showed that these powerful storms within the intensifying tropical cyclone were reaching heights above 15km/~9.3 miles.  

Manuel was a tropical depression early on Sept. 18, and by 11 a.m. EDT it regained strength as a tropical storm.

At 2 p.m. EDT on Sept. 18, a Hurricane Watch was in effect for La Cruz to Topolobampo, and a Tropical Storm Warning was in effect for Mazatlan to Topolobampo. A Tropical Storm Watch was also in effect from Cabo San Lucas to San Evaristo.

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Depression Manuel on Sept. 18 at 0829 UTC/4:29 a.m. EDT and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument captured cold, high, strong thunderstorms around the center of circulation that indicated strong thunderstorms and heavy rainfall. Cloud top temperatures were as cold as -63F/-52C in the storms surrounding the center of circulation. Although Manuel's center was still over the Gulf of California, its cloud cover stretched northwest, over the northern half of Mexico and into Texas.

Because Manuel is in an area of warm waters and low wind shear, the National Hurricane Center expects it to strengthen near hurricane status as it nears landfall, thus the hurricane watch.

Rainfall continues to be a problem with Manuel. The National Hurricane Center expects Manuel to generate between 5 to 10 inches of rain over the Mexican state of Sinaloa with isolated maximum amounts of 15 inches possible.  Manuel is also forecast to produce 3 to 5 inches of rain over the Mexican state of Nayarit and over the southern part of the Baja California Peninsula during the next few days.

At 2 p.m. EDT Manuel's maximum sustained winds had increased to near 60 mph/95 kph. The center of Tropical Storm Manuel was located near latitude 23.6 north and longitude 107.9 west, just 100 miles/160 km west-northwest of Mazatlan, Mexico. Manuel is moving toward the north-northwest near 5 mph/7 kph.  

Current NHC forecasts however, take Manuel right up to the coast near Los Mochis early on Friday, Sept. 20, and then turn it west toward Baja California.

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

 


Sept. 17, 2013

NASA's TRMM Satellite Adds up Tropical Storm Manuel's Amazing Rainfall  [image-110]

Tropical Storm Manuel dropped very heavy rains that caused floods and mudslides and took lives on Mexico's Pacific coast. Manuel's rainfall was captured and tallied from NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite known as TRMM.

Tropical storm Manuel may have dissipated, but the storm dropped very heavy rainfall along Mexico's Pacific coast where 21 people have been reported killed due to flooding and landslides caused by extreme rainfall. At the same time, on Sept. 16, Hurricane Ingrid weakened to a tropical storm and came ashore from the Gulf of Mexico into the state of Tamaulipas near La Pesca, Mexico, soaking that side of the country.[image-94]

A TRMM-based, near-real time Multi- satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) created at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. is used to monitor rainfall over the global tropics. MPA rainfall totals were created for eastern Mexico for the period of September 9 through 16, 2013 when Manuel was dropping heavy rainfall along Mexico's Pacific coast. The TRMM data showed that the highest rainfall totals for tropical storm Manuel of over 350mm (~14 inches) occurred along the Pacific coast.

According to reports from the Associated Press, Tropical Storm Manuel's rains flooded streets and the airport in Acapulco, forcing it to close down. Highways were also cut off from landslides. 

Text credit:  Hal Pierce/Rob Gutro
SSAI/NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

 

 

 

 

 


Sept. 16, 2013 - NASA Saw Tropical Storm Manuel Soak Western Mexico   [image-78]

Tropical Storm Manuel was soaking southwestern Mexico while Tropical Storm Ingrid was soaking eastern Mexico on Sept. 16. NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Manuel and the AIRS instrument captured infrared data that showed powerful thunderstorms were dropping heavy rainfall. However, Manuel's interaction with land caused the storm to dissipate on Sept. 16.

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Storm Manuel on Sept. 16 at 0841 UTC/4:41 a.m. EDT and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument looked at the storm in infrared light. That data was used to create a false-colored image at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. Looking at a storm in infrared light provides valuable temperature information. Cloud top temperatures that are colder than -63F/-52C likely drop heavy rainfall. The AIRS infrared data showed cloud top temperatures that cold stretching over a large area of the southwestern coast of Mexico.

By 5 a.m. EDT on Sept. 16, Manuel had dissipated over west-central Mexico. Despite the dissipation, heavy rains from Manuel's remnants continued to soak southwestern Mexico.  At that time, the center of what was Manuel was just about 5 miles/10 km west of Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, near latitude 20.6 north and longitude 105.3 west.  Maximum sustained winds are near 30 mph/45 kph. The remnants are moving toward the northwest near 8 mph/13 kph.

The National Hurricane Center noted that Manuel's powerful rain-making ability is a problem for residents. Rainfall totals of 10 to 15 inches, locally up to 25 inches are expected over the Mexican states of Guerrero and Michoacan. The National Hurricane Center expects rainfall totals of 5 to 10 inches, with as much as 20 inches in isolated areas over Colima, Jalisco and Nayarit. 

Forecasters at the National Hurricane Center expect the remnants of Manuel to drift westward and move off the coast of Mexico in the next couple of days, where it may become nearly stationary near the mouth of the Gulf of California for a few days.

Text credit:  Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


Sept. 13, 2013 - Friday the Thirteenth Brings Double Tropical Trouble to Mexico  [image-51]

Friday the thirteenth is known for being unlucky and residents along Mexico's eastern and western coast are experiencing that feeling as a result of newborn Tropical Depression 13E in the eastern Pacific Ocean, and newborn Tropical Storm Ingrid in the Gulf of Mexico. Both storms formed during the morning of Sept. 13. Both storms were captured on one infrared imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite, and both storms have the potential to drop as much as 20 inches of rain.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder instrument called AIRS that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured an infrared image of developing Tropical Depression 13E (TD13E) and Tropical Storm Ingrid on Sept. 13 at 1:23 UTC (9:23 p.m. EDT, Sept. 13). Both TD13E and Ingrid were classified as such on Sept. 13 at 11 a.m. EDT. TD13E formed along the western coast of Mexico, while Ingrid formed on the east coast in the Bay of Campeche. The AIRS image showed powerful storms and cold cloud top temperatures colder than -63F/-52C over a large area in TD13, and in a more concentrated, circular area within Tropical Storm Ingrid.

At 11 a.m. EDT, Tropical Depression 13E had maximum sustained winds near 35 mph/55 kph. It was centered near 15.7 north and 101.3 west, about 140 miles/225 km south of Zihuatanejo, Mexico, and about 170 miles/275 km south-southeast of Lazaro Cardenas, Mexico. TD13E was moving to the northwest at 3 mph/6 kph.

Like Tropical Storm Ingrid on the eastern side of Mexico, that is also slowly moving north, Tropical Depression 13E is expected to drop a lot of rain. The government of Mexico has issued a tropical storm warning for the southwest coast of Mexico from Acapulco to Lazaro Cardenas. On the forecast track, the National Hurricane Center noted that the depression should bBe very near the coast of southwestern Mexico within the warning area by late Saturday, Sept. 14.

Rainfall is going to be the biggest threat, with expectations of between 10 to 15 inches of rain over portions of the Mexican states of Oaxaca and Guerrero. Some areas may see isolated maximum amounts of 20 inches possible.  These rains are likely to result in life-threatening flash floods and mudslides, especially in mountainous areas.

Text credit: Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

TRMM image of Manuel
This updated rainfall map from NASA's TRMM satellite shows Hurricane Manuel's rainfall on Mexico's west coast including its last landfall on Sept. 19. Purple areas indicate 325 mm/12.8 inches of rain. Hurricane Irene's rainfall is on Mexico's east coast.
Image Credit: 
NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
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AIRS image of 13E and Ingrid
Aqua captured an infrared image of developing Tropical Depression 13E and Tropical Storm Ingrid on Sept. 13. TD13E formed along the western coast of Mexico, while Ingrid formed on the east coast. This image shows powerful storms and cold cloud top temperatures colder than -63F/-52C in purple.
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL/Ed Olsen
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AIRS image of Tropical Storm Manuel
NASA's Aqua satellite captured infrared data on Tropical Storm Manuel on Sept. 16 at 0841 UTC as it continued to soak southwestern Mexico. The purple areas indicate strong storms with heavy rainfall.
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
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GOES image of Manuel
This visible image from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows the remnants of Tropical Storm Manuel moving along the Pacific coast of Mexico.
Image Credit: 
NASA GOES Project
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TRMM image of Manuel and Ingrid
This color-coded map shows TRMM-derived rainfall totals of Tropical Storm Manuel. The heaviest rainfall totals appear in pink, where those areas received over 350mm (~14 inches) along the Pacific coast.
Image Credit: 
NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
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temperature diagram of Tropical Depression Manuel
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Depression Manuel on Sept. 18 at 0829 UTC and the AIRS instrument captured cold, high, strong thunderstorms around the center of circulation that indicated strong thunderstorms and heavy rainfall (purple).
Image Credit: 
NASA/JPL, Ed Olsen
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TRMM image of Manuel
A 3-D look at Manuel's structure showed powerful storms within the intensifying tropical cyclone were reaching heights above 15km (~9.3 miles) and had rainfall rates of almost 125mm/~4.9 inches per hour/
Image Credit: 
NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
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TRMM image of Manuel
NASA's TRMM satellite flew over Tropical Storm Manuel at 9:16 p.m. EDT on Sept. 18, and it observed areas of heavy rainfall (red)around the storm's center and in a band of thunderstorms north of the center. TRMM also observed hot towers, or towering thunderstorms that were over 16 km/9.9 miles high.
Image Credit: 
NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
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AIRS image of Manuel
On Sept. 19 at 5:11 a.m. EDT, the AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured this infrared image of Hurricane Manuel's very cold (purple) cloud tops and powerful thunderstorms.
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
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MODIS image of Manuel
The MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured this image of the remnants of Hurricane Manuel over western and north central Mexico on Sept. 19 at 20:15 UTC/4:15 p.m. EDT.
Image Credit: 
NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team
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AIRS image of Manuel
On Sept. 19 at 2011 UTC/4:11 p.m. EDT, this infrared image from NASA's Aqua satellite shows the concentration of strong thunderstorms (purple) around Manuel's center (over land) and streaming northeast into southwestern Texas.
Image Credit: 
NASA JPL, Ed Olsen
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TRMM image of Manuel
NASA's TRMM satellite found several areas of rain falling at a rate of over 50mm/2 inches per hour (red) when it passed over Manuel on Sept. 19.
Image Credit: 
NASA/SSAI, Hal Pierce
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Page Last Updated: September 23rd, 2013
Page Editor: Lynn Jenner