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Space Station Science Expedition Ten Overview fact sheet (09/04)
Expedition 10 -- the 10th science research mission on the International Space Station -- is scheduled to begin in October 2004, when the 10th crew arrives at the Space Station aboard a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Designated the 9S mission for the ninth Soyuz to visit the Station, a two-person crew will replace Expedition 9 crew and current Station residents Michael Fincke and Gennady Padalka. They are scheduled to return home in October on another Soyuz spacecraft (8S), currently docked at the Station.

During Expedition 10, two Russian Progress cargo flights -- called 16P and 17P for the 16th and 17th Progress vehicles - are scheduled to dock with the Space Station. The Progress re-supply ships will transport supplies to the Station and also may carry scientific equipment.

Much of the research activities for Expedition 10 will be carried out with scientific facilities and samples already on board the Space Station. Additional experiments are being evaluated and prepared to make use of limited cargo space on the Soyuz or Progress vehicles. The research agenda for the expedition remains flexible. While most equipment and samples can remain on board the Station with minimal or no detrimental effects, a few perishable samples -- urine samples and crystals, for example -- may be returned to Earth on the Soyuz.

The Expedition 10 crewmembers, Commander Leroy Chiao, also the NASA Space Station Science Officer, and Flight Engineer Salizhan Sharipov, will maintain the Station and work with science teams on the ground to operate experiments and collect data.

The Expedition 10 crew has more than 200 hours of possible payload activities. Space Station science also will be conducted by the ever-present additional "crewmembers" -- the team of controllers and scientists on the ground, who will continue to plan, monitor and operate experiments from control centers across the United States.

A team of controllers for Expedition 10 will work in the Space Station's Payload Operations Center -- the world's primary science command post for the Space Station -- at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, Ala. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, seven days a week in the Payload Operations Center, which links researchers around the world with their experiments and the crew aboard the Station.

Experiments using on-board resources

Many experiments from earlier Expeditions remain aboard the Space Station and will continue to benefit from the long-term research platform provided by the orbiting laboratory. These experiments include:

Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and man-made changes on Earth. The photographs record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. Together they provide researchers on Earth with vital, continuous images needed to better understand the planet.

Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), an education experiment, allows students to program a digital camera aboard the Station to take pictures of a variety of geographical targets for study in the classroom.

Behavioral Issues Association with Isolation and Confinement: Review and Analysis of Astronaut Journals obtains information on behavioral and human factors related to the design of the equipment and procedures and sustained human performance during long-duration missions.

Investigating the Structure of Paramagnetic Aggregates from Colloidal Emulsions (InSPACE) seeks to obtain basic data on magnetorheological fluids -- a new class of "smart materials" that can be used to improve or develop new brake systems, seat suspensions, robotics, clutches, airplane landing gear, and vibration damper systems. Samples for this experiment onboard the Station can be processed inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox facility, an enclosed work area that allows the crew to work safely with these fluids.

Renal Stone collects urine samples from the crew and tests a possible countermeasure for preventing kidney stone formation. This experiment will continue with the launch of resupply hardware.

Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI), an experiment performed in the Microgravity Science Glovebox, will melt samples of transparent modeling material to study how bubbles can be trapped in metal or crystal samples during space processing. Eliminating these bubbles could contribute to the development of stronger materials. Several samples were processed inside the glovebox during Expeditions 5, 7, 8 and 9. These samples can be processed several times with different experiment settings, allowing investigators to study different phenomena.

Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is a suitcase-sized experiment attached to the outside of the Space Station. It exposes hundreds of potential space construction materials to the environment. The samples will be returned to Earth for study during a later expedition. Investigators will use the resulting data to design stronger, more durable spacecraft.

Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) involves the crew installing software on the EXPRESS Laptop computer to monitor communications and analyze the amount of data flowing between the payloads aboard the Space Station. Results will show payload operators how efficiently their data is sent through the computers onboard.

Protein Crystal Growth Single-locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES) will continue to process crystals that have been growing since Expedition 6. Crystals also were grown on Expeditions 2, 4 and 5, then returned to Earth for analysis. The facility provides a temperature-controlled environment for growing high-quality protein crystals of selected proteins in microgravity for later analyses on the ground to determine the proteins' molecular structure. Research may contribute to advances in medicine, agriculture and other fields.

Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) and Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) sensors measure vibrations caused by crew, equipment and other sources that could disturb microgravity experiments.

For the Cell Biotechnology Operations Support Systems Fluid Dynamics Investigation (CBOSS - FDI), crew members will conduct a fluid-mixing test using CBOSS fluid samples. CBOSS is used to grow three-dimensional tissue that retains the form and function of natural living tissue, a capability that could hold insights in studying human diseases, including various types of cancer, diabetes, heart disease and AIDS. These types of cellular experiments were conducted during Expeditions 3 and 4. A critical step in performing these cell experiments involves mixing fluids. These fluid-mixing tests will be conducted to improve future experiments.

Education Payload Operations (EPO) includes educational activities that will focus on demonstrating science, mathematics, technology, engineering or geography principles. EPO is designed to support the NASA Mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

Binary Colloidal Alloy Test - 3 (BCAT - 3) will study the long-term behavior of colloids -- a system of fine particles suspended in a fluid - in a microgravity environment, where the effects of sedimentation and convection are removed. Crewmembers will evenly mix the samples, photograph the growth and formations of the colloids, and downlink the images for analysis. This experiment began on Expedition 8.

Human Life Science Investigations

Many continuing experiments will use measurements of Expedition 10 crewmembers to study changes in the body caused by exposure to the microgravity environment.

Chromosomal Aberrations in Blood Lymphocytes of Astronauts (Chromosome), will study space radiation on humans. The expected results will provide a better knowledge of the genetic risk of astronauts in space and can help to optimize radiation shielding.

Promoting Sensorimotor Response to Generalizability: A Countermeasure to Mitigate Locomotor Dysfunction After Long-duration Spaceflight (Mobility) studies changes in posture and gait after long-duration spaceflight.

Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ADUM) involves crewmembers conducting ultrasound exams on one another to determine the accuracy of using ultrasound to diagnose certain types of on-orbit injuries and to assess whether the ultrasound is a feasible option for monitoring in-flight bone alterations.

Biopsy allows researchers to take biopsies of their calf muscles before and after their stay on board the Space Station. This will allow scientists to begin developing an in-space countermeasure exercise program aimed at keeping muscles at their peak performance during long missions in space.

Destiny Laboratory Facilities

Several research facilities are in place aboard the Station to support Expedition 10 science investigations.

The Human Research Facility is designed to house and support a variety of life sciences experiments. It includes equipment for lung function tests, ultrasound to image the heart and many other types of computers and medical equipment.

The Microgravity Science Glovebox is the other major dedicated science facility inside Destiny. It has a large front window and built-in gloves to provide a sealed environment for conducting science and technology experiments. The Glovebox is particularly suited for handling hazardous materials when a crew is present.

The Destiny lab also is outfitted with five EXPRESS Racks. EXPRESS (Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station) racks are standard payload racks designed to provide experiments with a variety of utilities such as power, data, cooling, fluids and gasses. The racks support payloads in a several disciplines, including biology, chemistry, physics, ecology and medicines. The racks stay in orbit, while experiments are changed as needed. EXPRESS Racks 2 and 3 are equipped with the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) for countering minute vibrations from crew movement or operating equipment that could disturb delicate experiments.

Fact sheet number: FS-2004-10-147-MSFC