NASA seeks methods for real-time microbiological monitoring and analysis of spacecraft water and surfaces. Likely contamination events will include fungal contamination of the vehicle interior surfaces and bacterial contamination of the potable water systems. Requirements include a need for extended shelf life of consumables, improved autonomy of the crew to monitor and respond without Earth-based technical support, and the provision of greater information for decision-making. This information must include microbial concentration and identification, as well as identification of characteristics such as the degree of antibiotic resistance, virulence, and toxigenicity. These methods must also address spaceflight constraints of low volume, mass, and power requirements.