SpaceX-3 Mission Returning Space Station Science
NASA Television will provide live coverage of the departure of the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft from the International Space Station beginning at 6 a.m. PDT Sunday, May 18, 2014. After leaving the space station, the capsule will splashdown in the Pacific Ocean carrying more than 3,500 pounds of NASA science samples and cargo such as four payloads supported by NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California, including:
- T-Cell Activation in Aging
- HEART FLIES and
- Seedling Growth-1, the first in a series of joint NASA-European Space Agency (ESA) experiments to help us better understand plant growth in space. It studies how plants adapt to micro- and low-gravity environments and aims to help researchers determine the ability of plants to provide a complete, sustainable, dependable and economical means for human life support in space. The project is supported by NASA’s Space Biology Project at Ames and ESA. The principal investigators are John Z. Kiss of the University of Mississippi in Oxford, Mississippi, and F. Javier Medina of the Spanish National Research Council (CFSC) in Madrid, Spain. Seedling Growth-1 was launched to the space station in March 2013 aboard the second flight of the SpaceX Dragon.
The third Dragon capsule is set to be detached from the Earth-facing side of the station's Harmony module and unberthed through commands sent by robotic ground controllers at mission control in Houston operating the Canadarm 2 robotic arm. Dragon then will be maneuvered into place for its release scheduled for approximately 6:25 a.m.
Dragon will execute three thruster firings to move away from the station to a safe distance for its deorbit burn at 11:10 a.m. Dragon will splash down around 12:05 p.m. in the Pacific Ocean west of Baja California. Neither the deorbit burn nor the splashdown will be broadcast on NASA TV.
Dragon is the only space station resupply spacecraft designed to return to Earth intact. Among the 3,563 pounds of return cargo are science samples from human research, biology and biotechnology studies, physical science investigations and education activities. The spacecraft also will return crew supplies, vehicle hardware and spacewalk equipment.
NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif., launched a variety of experiments into space aboard NASA's next commercial cargo resupply flight of the Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) Dragon spacecraft to the International Space Station. These experiments included a next-generation smartphone satellite, 100 stamp-sized nanosatellites and life science experiments to better our understanding of how spaceflight affects the human body, the growth of cells and plants. Future astronauts on long-term space missions in low-Earth orbit, to asteroids, other planets and beyond will benefit from these technologies and need to understand how to prevent illnesses during space travel.
The company's third commercial resupply mission to the space station lifted off on a Falcon 9 rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida at 12:25 p.m. PDT Friday, April 18. The mission delivered several tons of supplies, including new science and technology research experiments.
To learn more about the SpaceX-3 mission, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/spacex
The three Ames-supported satellites, which were selected for launch by NASA’s CubeSat Launch Initiative, deployed from the Falcon 9 rocket or Dragon spacecraft into low-Earth orbits between 200 and 250 miles (325 and 400 kilometers) above Earth.
PhoneSat 2.5 is a one-unit (1U) cubesat spacecraft built at Ames. It measures 10 centimeters square (approximately four inches on each side) and uses commercially available smartphones. This latest PhoneSat is fifth in a series and has three objectives: determine if a low-cost commercially available attitude determination and control system can work in space; verify if a smartphone can support space-based communications systems; and provide further confidence in the PhoneSat concept and components by investigating its ability to survive long-term in the radiation environment of space. PhoneSat 2.5 is equipped with a higher-gain S-Band antenna, which serves as a pathfinder for future NASA missions, including the Edison Demonstration of Satellite Network (EDSN) mission scheduled to launch later this year. EDSN plans to launch eight identical 1.5U cubesats (10-by-10-by-15 centimeters and 2.5 kilograms) based on the PhoneSat architecture to demonstrate the utility of multiple small spacecraft cooperatively working together. PhoneSat 2.5’s smartphone camera will attempt to transmit photographs to the ground station at Santa Clara University in California to gather information for future low-cost star trackers. The PhoneSat series of technology demonstration missions is funded by the Small Spacecraft Technology Program, in NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters and the Engineering Directorate at Ames.
SporeSat is an autonomous, free-flying spacecraft that will investigate how germinating plant cells sense and respond to gravity. Researchers are studying spores in space to gain a more detailed understanding of molecular and biophysical mechanisms for gravity sensing. Specifically, it will investigate how germinating single-celled spores of the aquatic fern Ceratopteris richardii sense and respond to gravity. The 3U spacecraft built at Ames, weighs approximately 12 pounds and measures 10-by-10-by-30 centimeters (14 inches long, four inches wide, four inches tall). The science payload includes three lab-on-a-chip devices, called BioCDs, developed by researchers at Purdue University in Lafayette, Ind., for variable gravity electrophysiology studies of single cells. Each disc-shaped BioCD holds up to 32 spores. During the experiment, two of the BioCDs will spin to simulate gravity and the third will remain stationary. SporeSat was developed through a partnership between Ames, which managed the development of the mission, and the Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering at Purdue, where Jenna Rickus and Amani Salim are the principal investigators. SporeSat is funded by the Space Biology Project at Ames and the Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications Division in the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters.
- SporeSat Mission Dashboard
- SporeSat Engineering Fact Sheet (with images)
- SporeSat Science Fact Sheet (with images)
KickSat was a 3U cubesat technology demonstration mission designed to deploy and operate in space a prototype 3.5-by-3.5 centimeter (1.4-by-1.4 inch) Sprite “ChipSats” developed at Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., with support from Ames Office of the Chief Technologist. A 1U avionics bus provides power, communications, command and data handling, and attitude control functions, while a 2U deployer houses 100 Sprites in individual spring-loaded slots. Each Sprite is a tiny spacecraft with power, sensor and communication systems on a printed circuit board. It is intended as a general-purpose sensor platform for micro-electro-mechanical and other chip-scale sensors with the ability to downlink data to ground stations from low Earth orbit. Chipsats like the Sprite represent a disruptive new space technology that has the potential to both open space access to hobbyists and students and enable a new class of science missions. The hardware for the KickSat mission was funded by the crowdsource-funding website Kickstarter.
In addition to deploying three Ames-supported nanosatellites, Dragon also will deliver several life science experiments developed in collaboration with Ames, including:
T-Cell Activation in Aging is an investigation of the genetic and molecular mechanisms that underlie diminished T-cell activation that occurs in the aging population and astronauts. T-cell activation is a critical event during which T-cells, which are specialized immune system cells, recognize infections within the body and initiate a defensive response. The National Institute on Aging, part of the National Institutes of Health, is the sponsoring space agency for the mission.
“This experiment’s unique approach to studying molecular mechanisms that contribute to decline of T-cell function will add to our understanding of the effects of zero gravity on the immune function, as well as provide insights about immune suppression, a major issue affecting older people,” said Felipe Sierra Ph.D., director of the National Institute on Aging Division of Aging Biology. “Hopefully, this will help lead to new interventions to prevent infection not only for those on space travel but also for those with compromised immune systems, including the elderly.”
Ames is the integration partner and provides science team support to the principal investigator. The European Space Agency developed the payload and provides experiment hardware, payload integration and operations support for the mission. Millie Hughes-Fulford, former NASA Astronaut and researcher at Northern California Institute for Research and Education at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center is the principal investigator.
- T-Cells Activation in Aging Fact Sheet (with images)
- International Space Station T-Cells Activation in Aging page
Heart Effect Analysis Research Team conducting FLy Investigations and Experiments in Spaceflight (HEART FLIES) used the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to study the effects of spaceflight on the structure and function of the heart. The investigators will evaluate heart rhythm, contractility, pumping function, and heart muscle structure in both space-flown and ground-based control flies, and they also will characterize the effects of spaceflight on gene expression patterns in heart tissue. This experiment is supported by Ames, Stanford University, the Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, Nanoracks LLC., and Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS). HEART FLIES was competitively selected for payload transportation to the space station by the Space Florida International Space Station Research Competition. Peter H.U. Lee is the principal investigator. Lee was at Stanford University at the time of the grant award, and now works in the Department of Surgery at Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. Sharmila Bhattacharya of Ames, and Rolf Bodmer and Karen Ocorr of the Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute in La Jolla, Calif., are co-investigators.
- HEART FLIES Fact Sheet (with images)
- Feature: NASA’s Next “Top Model,” The Fruit Fly
- International Space Station HEART FLIES page
Micro-7 was the first spaceflight study of gene and microRNA expression in non-dividing cells. The study also will investigate how spaceflight affects the response of non-dividing cells to DNA damage. The data from Micro-7 will provide insight into how gene expression regulates cellular adaptation to spaceflight and the specific role of microRNA in this process. Missions conducted in deep space—such as a mission to Mars—will expose crew members to higher levels of DNA-damaging radiation than on Earth or in low Earth orbit. Knowledge of how cells adapt to spaceflight and whether microgravity affects cellular response to DNA damage is important for assessing future health risks for astronauts and predicting mutation rates for microorganisms. This experiment is supported by NASA’s Space Biology Project at Ames and BioServe Space Technologies at the University of Colorado Boulder. Honglu Wu of NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston is the principal investigator.
- Feature: The Space Double-Whammy: Less Gravity, More Radiation
- Micro-7 Fact Sheet (with images)
- International Space Station Micro-7 page
Dragon also delivered legs to the humanoid robot on the space station, Robonaut 2 (R2). The legs will provide R2 the mobility it needs to help with regular and repetitive tasks inside and outside the space station. The goal is to free up the crew for more critical work, including scientific research. R2 is developed by Johnson and is part of the Human Exploration Telerobotics project. The project is managed by the Intelligent Robotics Group at Ames and involves research and development at Ames, Johnson, and the agency's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. Support for the project is provided by the NASA Technology Demonstration Missions program.
- Feature: NASA's Robonaut Legs Headed for International Space Station
- Follow R2's updates on Twitter at: http://www.twitter.com/AstroRobonaut
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